Q.1. Which of the following contraceptive methods involve a role of hormone? (2019)
(a) Pill, Emergency contraception, Barrier methods
(b) Lactational amenorrhea, Pills, Emergency contraceptives
(c) Barrier method, Lactational amenorrhea Pills
(d) Cut, Pills, Emergency contraceptive
Lactational amenorrhea method is based on the fact that ovulation and therefore the menstrual cycle do not occur during the period of intense lactation following parturition. This is because breastfeeding disrupts the pattern of pulsatile release of GnRH from hypothalamus and hence reduction in gonadotropin releasing hormones. Pills are hormonal preparations (either progesterone or progestogen- estrogen combinations) in the form of tablets which are administered orally by females. They inhibit ovulation, implantation as well as alter the quality of cervical mucus. Emergency contraceptives are pills that contain levonorgestrel, a type of progestin that helps to prevent pregnancy when taken in few days after sex.
Q.2. Select the hormone-releasing Intra-Uterine Devices. (2019)
(a) Lippes Loop, Multiload 375
(b) Vaults, LNG-20
(c) MuLtiload 375, Progestasert
(d) Progestasert, LNG-20
Lippes loop is non-medicated Intra Uterine Device (IUD) while Multiload 375 is copper releasing iUD. Vault is a barrier method of birth control. It is a hemispheric dome-like rubber or plastic cap with thick rim meant for fitting over the vaginal cervix.
Q.3. Which of the following sexually transmitted diseases is not completely curable? (2019)
(c) Genital warts
(d) Genital herpes
Antibiotics like tetracycline, erythromycin and rifampicin are effective in chlamydiosis Gonorrhoea can be treated by antibiotics such as erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, etc. For treating genital warts, cryosurgery is used for removing warts. Genital herpes is an incurable STD.
Q.4. Which of the following is a correct statement? (2019)
(a) IUDs once inserted need not be replaced.
(b) IUDs are generally inserted by the user herself
(c) IUDs increase phagocytosis of sperms in the uterus.
(d) IUDs suppress gametogenesis.
Q.5. The contraceptive ‘Saheli’ (2018)
(a) Blocks estrogen receptors in the uterus, preventing eggs from getting implanted
(b) Increases the concentration of estrogen and prevents oblation in females
(c) Is an IUD
(d) Is a post-coital contraceptive.
Saheli is a mini pill that contains a nonsteroidal preparation called centchroman which is taken once in a week after an initial intake of twice a week for 3 months. It blocks estrogen receptors in the uterus hence alters uterine lining and prevents fertilised eggs from being implanted.
Q.6. Match the following sexually transmitted diseases (column I) with their causative agents (column II) and select the correct option. (2018)
Q.7. The function of copper ions in copper releasing IUDs is (2017)
(a) They inhibit gametogenesis
(b) They make uterus unsuitable for implantation
(c) They inhibit ovulation
(d) They suppress sperm motility and fertilization capacity of sperm.
Copper releasing IUDs (i.e., CuT, LNG - 20) are placed in the uterus of the females. They are efficient birth control methods. Copper ions released by them suppress motility and fertilization capacity of the sperms.
Q.8. In case of a couple where the male is having a very low sperm count, which technique will be suitable for fertilisation? (2017)
(a) Gamete intracytoplasmic Fallopian transfer
(b) Artificial Insemination
(c) Intracytoplasmic sperm injection
(d) Intrauterine transfer
Infertility cases due to inability of the male partner to inseminate the female or due to very low sperm count in the ejaculates, could be corrected by using artificial insemination (AI) technique. In this procedure semen is injected directly into the vagina or uterus. In this technique, the semen collected either from the husband or a healthy donor is artificially introduced either into the vagina or into the uterus of the female. Hence answer is 'Artificial Insemination'
Q.9. Which of the following is hormone-releasing IUD? (2016)
(b) Multiload 375
(c) Lippes loop
LNG-20 is the hormone releasing IUD, multiload 375 and Cu7 are copper releasing IUDs and Lippes loop is a non-medicated IUD.
Q.10. Which of the following is incorrect regarding vasectomy? (2016)
(a) No sperm occurs in seminal fluid
(b) No sperm occurs in epididymis
(c) Vasa deferentia is cut and tied
(d) Irreversible sterility
Vasectomy is a surgical contraception method performed in males. In vasectomy, a small part o f the vas deferens is removed or tied up through a small cut on the scrotum. This prevents sperm transport. Vasectomy has a poor reversibility. There is no effect on libido and erectile functioning. Seminal vesicles are one pair of sac-like structures which join vasa deferentia to form ejaculatory ducts. They secrete seminal fluid which contains fructose, prostaglandins and clotting protein, but no sperms. In a male who has undergone vasectomy, the ejaculatory duct will receive seminal fluid but due to cut in vas deferens sperm will not be transported from epididymis hence the semen will lack sperms.
Q.11. Embryo with more than 16 blastomeres formed due to in Vitro fertilisation is transferred into (2016)
(b) Fallopian tube
Embryo with more than 16 blastomeres formed due to in vitro fertilisation is transferred into uterus (intrauterine transfer, IUT).
Q.12. Which of the following approach does not give the defined action of contraceptive? (2016)
Ans. Vasectomy is a sterilisation techniques for the males in which a small part of the vas deferens is removed or tied up through a small cut on the scrotum to prevent passage of sperms. Spermatogenesis is the series of cell division in the testis that results in the production of spermatozoa or sperms.
Q.13. In context of amniocentesis, which of the following statements is incorrect? (2016)
(a) It can be used for detection of Down’s syndrome.
(b) It can be used for detection of cleft palate.
(c) It is usually done when a woman is between 14-16 weeks pregnant.
(d) It is used for prenatal sex determination.
Amniocentesis is fetal sex determination and disorder test based on the chromosomal pattren in the amniotic fluid surrounding the developing embryo. It can be used to determine the sex of the infant, to identify some abnormalities in the number of chromosomes and to detect certain biochemicals and enzymatic abnormalities. It is usually done when woman is 14-16 weeks pregnant. Cleft palate can be detected by ultrasound.
Q.14. In context of Amniocentesis, which of the following statement is incorrect? (2016)
(a) It is usually done when a woman is between 14-16 weeks pregnant.
(b) It is used for prenatal sex determination
(c) It can be used for detection of Down syndrome
(d) It can be used for detection of Cleft palate
Amniocentesis (also referred to as amniotic fluid test or AFT) is a medical procedure used in prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities and fetal infections, and also used for sex determination in which a small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains fetal tissues, is sampled from the amniotic sac. Cleft palate is a developmental abnormality which can only be detected by sonography.
Q.15. Which of the following approaches does not give the defined action of contraceptive? (2016)
(a) Barrier methods prevent fertilization
(b) Intrauterine Increase phagocytosis devices of sperms, suppress sperm motility and fertilizing capacity of sperms
(c) Hormonal Prevent/retard entry of contraceptives sperms, prevent ovulation and fertilization
(d) Vasectomy Prevents spermatogenesis
Vasectomy is a surgical procedure for male sterilization or permanent contraception. During the procedure, the male vas deferens are severed and then tied or sealed in a manner so as to prevent sperm from entering into the seminal stream (ejaculate) and thereby prevents fertilization.
Q.16. Hysterectomy is surgical removal of : (2015)
(a) Prostate gland
(c) Mammary glands
A hysterectomy is a surgery in which woman’s uterus is removed. It is adopted for the treatment of uterine fibroids and cancer of uterine zone.
Q.17. Ectopic pregnancies are referred to as: (2015)
(a) Implantation of embryo at site other than uterus.
(b) Implantation of defective embryo in the uterus
(c) Pregnancies terminated due to hormonal imbalance.
(d) Pregnancies with genetic abnormality.
In ectopic pregnancies, the implantation of embryo does not occur in uterus but at other site.
Q.18. Tubectomy is a method of sterilization in which: (2014)
(a) Small part of the fallopian tube is removed or tied up.
(b) Ovaries are removed surgically.
(c) Small part of vas deferens is removed or tied up.
(d) Uterus is removed surgically.
Tubectomy also referred to as tubal sterilization is a surgical procedure done on women as a permanent method of contraception. In this method fallopian tubes are blocked so that the ova or eggs are prevented from travelling to the uterus from the ovary. This prevents any future pregnancy to occur after the surgical procedure.
Q.19. Which of the following is a hormone releasing Intra Uterine Device (IUD)? (2014)
(a) Multiload 375
(b) LNG - 20
(c) Cervical cap
An intrauterine device (IUD) is a small contraceptive device, often 'T'-shaped, often containing either copper or levonorgestrel, which is inserted into the uterus. They are one form of long-acting reversible contraception which is the most effective types of reversible birth control. The LNG-20 is so-called because it releases 20 micrograms of levonorgestrel per 24 hours, compared with 30 micrograms of levonorgestrel in some mini-Pills.
Q.20. Assisted reproductive technology, IVF involves transfer of: (2014)
(a) Ovum into the fallopian tube.
(b) Zygote into the fallopian tube.
(c) Zygote into the uterus.
(d) Embryo with 16 blastomeres into the fallopian tube.
IVF (In-vitro Fertilization) is the process of fertilization by manually combining an egg and sperm in a laboratory dish. The process involves monitoring and stimulating a woman's ovulatory process, removing ovum or ova (egg or eggs) from the woman's ovaries and letting sperm fertilise them in a fluid medium in a laboratory. The fertilised egg (zygote) is cultured for 2-6 days in a growth medium and is then transferred to the mother's uterus with the intention of establishing a successful pregnancy.