Q.1. In which of the following techniques, the embryos are transferred to assist those females who cannot conceive? 
(a) ICSI and ZIFT
(b) GIFT and ICSI
(c) ZIFT and IUT
(d) GIFT and ZIFT
Solution: When females cannot conceive then embryo transfer is done by using ZIFT and IUT technique. In this method, ova from female & sperms from male is collected and are induced in the laboratory under simulated conditions to form a zygote. The zygote with up to 8 blastomeres is transferred into the fallopian tube through ZIFT or embryos with more than 8 blastomeres are transferred into the uterus through IUT.Q.2. Select the option including all sexually transmitted diseases. 
(a) AIDS, Malaria, filaria
(b) Cancer, AIDS, syphilis
(c) Gonorrhoea, Syphilis, Genital Herpes
(d) Gonorrhoea, Syphilis, Genital Herpes
Solution: Diseases or infections which are transmitted through sexual intercourse are collectively called sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or venereal diseases (VD) or reproductive tract infections (RTI).
Q.3. Which of the following contraceptive methods involve the role of hormone? 
(a) Pill, Emergency contraception, Barrier methods
(b) Lactational amenorrhea, Pills, Emergency contraceptives
(c) Barrier method, Lactational amenorrhea pills
(d) Cut, Pills, Emergency contraceptive
Q.4. Select the hormone-releasing Intra-Uterine Devices. 
(a) Lippes Loop, Multiload 375
(b) Vaults, LNG-20
(c) Multiload 375, Progestasert
(d) Progestasert, LNG-20
Solution: Progestaserl and LNG-20 are hormone-releasing IUDs that make the uterus unsuitable for implantation and the cervix hostile to sperms.
Q.5. Which of the following sexually transmitted diseases is not completely curable? 
(c) Genital warts
(d) Genital herpes
Solution: Antibiotics like tetracycline, erythromycin, and rifampicin are effective in chlamydiosis. Gonorrhea can be treated by antibiotics such as erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, etc. For treating genital warts, cryosurgery is used for removing warts. Genital herpes is an incurable STD.
Q.6. Which of the following is a correct statement? 
(a) IUDs once inserted need not be replaced.
(b) IUDs are generally inserted by the user herself.
(c) IUDs increase phagocytosis of sperms in the uterus.
(d) IUDs suppress gametogenesis.
Solution: Doctors or expert nurses insert these devices in the uterus through the vagina.
There are three types of IUDs available:
(i) The non-medicated IUDs (e.g., Lippes loop) increase phagocytosis of the sperms.
(ii) Copper releasing IUDs (CuT, Cu7, Multiload 375). IUDs increase phagocytosis of sperms within the uterus and the Cu ions released suppress sperm motility and the fertilizing capacity of sperms.
(iii) The hormone-releasing IUDs 60 (Progestasert, LNG-20). The hormone-releasing IUDs, make the uterus unsuitable for implantation and the cervix hostile to sperms.
Q.7. The contraceptive ‘Saheli’: 
(a) Blocks estrogen receptors in the uterus, preventing eggs from getting implanted.
(b) Increases the concentration of estrogen and prevents oblation in females.
(c) Is an IUD
(d) Is a post-coital contraceptive.
Solution: Saheli is a mini pill that contains a nonsteroidal preparation called centchroman, which is taken once a week after an initial intake of twice a week for 3 months. It blocks estrogen receptors in the uterus hence alters uterine lining and prevents fertilized eggs from being implanted.
Q.8. Match the following sexually transmitted diseases (Column I) with their causative agents (Column II) and select the correct option. 
Q.9. The function of copper ions in copper releasing IUDs is: 
(a) They inhibit gametogenesis
(b) They make the uterus unsuitable for implantation
(c) They inhibit ovulation
(d) They suppress sperm motility and fertilization capacity of sperm.
Solution: Copper-releasing IUDs (i.e., CuT, LNG - 20) is placed in the uterus of the females. They are efficient birth control methods. Copper ions released by them suppress the motility and fertilization capacity of the sperms.
Q.10. In the case of a couple where the male is having a very low sperm count, which technique will be suitable for fertilization? 
(a) Gamete Intracytoplasmic Fallopian Transfer
(b) Artificial Insemination
(c) Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection
(d) Intrauterine Transfer
Solution: Infertility cases due to the inability of the male partner to inseminate the female or due to very low sperm count in the ejaculates could be corrected by using the artificial insemination (AI) technique.
In this procedure, semen is injected directly into the vagina or uterus. In this technique, the semen collected either from the husband or a healthy donor is artificially introduced either into the vagina or into the uterus of the female.
Q.11. Which of the following is hormone-releasing IUD? 
(b) Multiload 375
(c) Lippes loop
Solution: LNG-20 is the hormone-releasing IUD, multi-load 375 and Cu7 are copper releasing IUDs and Lippes loop is a non-medicated IUD. The LNG-20 is called so, because it releases 20 micrograms of levonorgestrel per 24 hours, compared with 30 micrograms of levonorgestrel in some mini-Pills.
Q.12. Which of the following is incorrect regarding vasectomy? 
(a) No sperm occurs in seminal fluid
(b) No sperm occurs in the epididymis
(c) Vasa deferentia is cut and tied
(d) Irreversible sterility
Solution: Vasectomy is a surgical contraception method performed in males.
Q.13. Embryo with more than 16 blastomeres formed due to in Vitro fertilization is transferred into: 
(b) Fallopian tube
Solution: An embryo with more than 16 blastomeres formed due to in vitro fertilization is transferred into the uterus (intrauterine transfer, IUT).
Q.14. In the context of amniocentesis, which of the following statements is incorrect? 
(a) It can be used for the detection of Down’s syndrome.
(b) It can be used for the detection of cleft palate.
(c) It is usually done when a woman is between 14-16 weeks pregnant.
(d) It is used for prenatal sex determination.
Amniocentesis is a fetal sex determination and disorder test based on the chromosomal pattern in the amniotic fluid surrounding the developing embryo.
Q.15. Which of the following approaches does not give the defined action of contraceptive? 
(a) Barrier methods prevent fertilization
(b) Intrauterine Increase phagocytosis devices of sperms, suppress sperm motility and fertilizing capacity of sperms
(c) Hormonal Prevent/retard entry of contraceptives sperms, prevent ovulation and fertilization
(d) Vasectomy Prevents spermatogenesis
Q.16. Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of: 
(a) Prostate gland
(c) Mammary glands
Solution: A hysterectomy is a surgery in which a woman’s uterus is removed. It is adopted for the treatment of uterine fibroids and cancer of the uterine zone.
Q.17. Ectopic pregnancies are referred to as: 
(a) Implantation of the embryo at a site other than the uterus.
(b) Implantation of the defective embryo in the uterus
(c) Pregnancies terminated due to hormonal imbalance.
(d) Pregnancies with a genetic abnormality.
Solution: In ectopic pregnancies, the implantation of the embryo does not occur in the uterus but at another site.
Q.18. Tubectomy is a method of sterilization in which: 
(a) Small part of the fallopian tube is removed or tied up.
(b) Ovaries are removed surgically.
(c) Small part of vas deferens is removed or tied up.
(d) Uterus is removed surgically.
Solution: Tubectomy also referred to as tubal sterilization is a surgical procedure done on women as a permanent method of contraception. In this method, fallopian tubes are blocked so that the ova or eggs are prevented from traveling to the uterus from the ovary. This prevents any future pregnancy from occurring after the surgical procedure.
Q.19. Assisted reproductive technology, IVF involves the transfer of: 
(a) Ovum into the fallopian tube.
(b) Zygote into the fallopian tube.
(c) Zygote into the uterus.
(d) Embryo with 16 blastomeres into the fallopian tube.
Solution: IVF (In-vitro Fertilization) is the process of fertilization by manually combining an egg and sperm in a laboratory dish. The process involves monitoring and stimulating a woman's ovulatory process, removing ovum or ova (egg or eggs) from the woman's ovaries, and letting sperm fertilize them in a fluid medium in a laboratory. The fertilized egg (zygote) is cultured for 2-6 days in a growth medium and is then transferred to the mother's uterus with the intention of establishing a successful pregnancy.