The material issues that went into the making of Sociology
- The industrial revolution was based upon a new dynamic form of economic acitvity-capitalism.
- Capitalism involved new attitudes and institutions.
- Entrepreneurs engaged in the sustained, systematic pursuit of profit.
- The markets acted as the key instrument of productive life : goods, services and labour became commodities.
- It led to degradation of labour, the wrenching of work from the protective contexts of the guild, village and family.
- Urban centers expanded and grew.
- The industrial cities gave birth to completely new kind of urban world.
- Marked by the soot and grime of factories, by over crowded slums of the new industrial working class, bad sanitation and general squalor.
- It was also marked by new kinds of social interactions.
- The factory and its mechanical division of labour were seen as a deliberate attempt to destroy the peasant, the artisan, as well as family and local community.
- Another indicator of the emergence of modern societies was the new significance of "clock-time" as a social organisation.
- Labour increasingly came to be set by the clock and calendar. Work-rhythms were set such as the period of daylight, break between tasks.
- Factory production implied the synchronisation of labour.
- Time is now money, it is spent.
Origin of Sociology in India
- Formal university teaching of sociology began in 1919 University of Bombay and later in Calcutta and Lucknow.
- The detailed study of society was first begun during the colonial period.
- Reviewers of Indians society generally trace its origin to work of several British civil servants, missionaries and western scholars during 18th and 19th century.
- They wanted to know more about Indian culture so that they could easily rule overthe country.
- Christian missionaries were interested in learning local languages, folklores and culture to carry out their activities.
Scope of Sociology
- Scope of sociological study is extremely wide. It offers a specific way of looking at society and helps us to understand it in a better way.
- It can focus its analysis of interaction between individuals or groups.
- It can focus on national issues such as unemployment and even global social issues.
- Sociology is interrelated with all other social sciences. Hence it is called the sum total of all social Sciences as it cover not only one or two aspects but study the society in its totality.
- It can focus its analysis of interactions between individuals such as that of a shopkeeper with a customer, between teachers and students, between two friends orfamily members.
- Sociology is a discipline that expands our awareness and analysis of the human social relationship, cultures, and institutions that profoundly shape both our lives and human history.
- Sociology looks beyond normal, taken-for-granted views of reality, to provide deeper, more illuminating and challenging understanding of social life.
Sociology and its relationship with other Social Sciences
- The scope of sociological study is extremely wide. It can focus its analysis of interactions between individuals and examine global social processes.
- Sociology is one of a group of social sciences which also includes anthropology, economics, political science and history. All share a certain range of common interests, concepts and methods.
- To differentiate the social sciences would be to exaggerate the differences and gloss over the similarities.
- There is a greater need of interdisciplinary approach.
A. Sociology and Economics
- Economics is the study of production and distribution of goods and services.
- The sociological approach looks at economics in a broader context of social norms, values, practices and interests.
- The large investment in the advertisement industry is directly linked to the need to reshape lifestyles and consumption patterns.
- Trends within economics such as feminist economists seek to broaden the focus, drawing in gender as a central organising principle of society.
- Economists are known for the precision of their terminology and exactness of their measures.
- Sociology encourages questioning and critical perspective thereby facilitating discussion.
- Recent trends have seen a resurgence of economic sociology because of its wider and critical perspective.
B. Sociology and Political Science
- Sociology is devoted to the study of all aspects of Society. Sociology stresses the inter-relationships between sets of institutions including government where as political science tends to turn attention towards the processes within the government.
- Sociology long shared similar interests of research with political science. Studies have also been conducted in membership of political organisations, processes of decisions making in organisations reason for support of political parties, the role of gender in politics etc.
C. Sociology and History
- History studies concrete details while the sociologist moves to abstract from concrete.
- Historians today are equally involved in doing sociological methods and concepts in their analysis.
- History is more sociological as it looks at social patterns, gender relations, mores, customs and other important institutions.
D. Sociology and Psychology
- Psychology is defined as the science of individual behaviour.
- Social psychology serves as a bridge between psychology and sociology and concerns itself with the ways in which the individual behaves in social groups, collectively with other individuals.
- Sociology attempts to understand behavior as it is organized in society, that is the way in which personality is shaped by different aspects of society.
Sociology and Social Anthropology
- Sociology and social Anthropology are considered as "sister disciplines" because:-
- Sociology is the study of existing society whereas social anthropology tends to study small and simple societies, which are relatively unchanging and lacking in historical records.
- For social anthropologists the field is small whereas for sociologists field can be large.
- Social anthropologists generally lives in the community that they study in order to record what they see.
- On the other hand, sociologists rely on collected data.
- Inspite of obvious differences between the two, in 19th century, there had been a great deal of convergence between the two disciplines because with rapid development the areas of study of anthropologist is shrinking.
- To some extent sociology and social anthropology are similar as their areas of study are culture and society. Anthropologist studies culture as it developed in the past and sociologists studies as it exists in the present.