Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP)
IRDP's objectives are:
- Reduction of unemployment in rural areas;
- Provision of assets, inputs for rural poor to cross the poverty line.
- The IRDP was started in 1978-79 in 2300 development blocks as a programme of total development country covering small and marginal farmers, agricultural labourers and rural artisans with an annual income of less than Rs. 11,000 throughout India.
- It is implemented by District Rural Development Agencies (DRDA).
- Under this programme, central funds are passed on to the state government for covering selected rural families living below the poverty line.
- The sharing between the centre and states is 50:50.
- Under the programme subsidy provision of 25% for small farmers, 33½% for marginal farmers, agricultural labourers and rural artisans, 50% for SCs/STs and physically handicapped has been made.
- Selection criterion of the poor is based on Antyodaya principle, i.e. poorest of poor first.
- About 490 selected families have benefited from it since the inception of the programme.
- IRDP has two components : Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment (TRYSEM) and Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA).
This programme has been found to suffer from lack of competence, integrity and training. This is reflected in selection of beneficiaries (really poor and eligible persons left out), leakages in pipeline, non-development of adequate infrastructure, etc.
Training of Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRYSEM)
- A centrally sponsored scheme for self employment, it was launched on August 15, 1979.
- The objective of scheme is to provide training in skills and entrepreneurship to rural youth between the age group of 18 to 35 years belonging to families below poverty line.
- Proposes to cover 2 lakh youths per year.
- Covers 40 youth per block belonging to families with annual income less than Rs. 3500.
- 50% reservation for SC/STs and 40% for women has been provided for the training.
- During training stipends and free improved tool kits are provided to the trainees.
Development of Women & Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA)
- It was started in September 1982 as a component of IRDP.
- it aims at providing training in skills and entrepreneurship to women members in the age group of 18 to 35, belonging to families below poverty line.
- Women members of targeted families may take benefits of loan and subsidy under IRDP.
- The scheme is executed by DRDA.
- To facilitate the implementation of scheme, the policy of making groups of 10-15 women was adopted.
- A revolving fund of Rs. 25,000 is provided to each women group to meet the needs of their working capital from the year 1995-96. Monetary contribution to this fund is made by centre, state and UNICEF in the ratio of 40:40:20 respectively.
National Rural Employment Programme (NREP)
- it was launched in 1980 but got an impetus in 1981 when it become a regular part of the Sixth Plan.
- It aimed at generating additional gainful employment, creating productive community assets to strengthen rural infrastructure and improving nutritional standards.
- Was implemented as a centrally sponsored scheme on 50:50 sharing basis between the centre and the states.
- It was implemented through DRDA.
- For the first time Panchayati Raj institutions were involved in the execution of an employment generation programme.
- In 1989 merged with JRY.
Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP)
- Was launched on August 15, 1983 as 100% centrally sponsored scheme at the mid-term appraisal of Sixth Plan.
- Its main objective was improving and expanding employment opportunities for the rural landless by providing guarantee of employment to at least one member of every landless household upto 100 days in a year and creating durable assets to strengthen infrastructure.
- The programme was continued to be implemented during the Seventh Plan. Indira Awas Yojana launched on October 2, 1985 was a sub scheme of RLEGP.
- It was merged with JRY in 1989.
Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY)
- Was started in April 1989 by merging wage employment schemes NREP and RLEGP.
- Evaluation of previous programme showed that only 55 percent of villages had got benefits of any works programme, therefore JRY targeted to benefit each village.
- Primary objective is generation of additional gainful employment for rural poor.
- Secondary objective is creation of a viable rural economic infrastructure.
- Main thrust is on placing funds in the hands of Panchayats so that they are able to evolve their own programmes which will benefit entire village especially the down-trodden.
- Expenditure is shared by centre and state governments on 80:20 basis.
- Preference is given to SCs and STs in employment, also 30% reservation for women.
- Non-wage component restricted to a maximum of 50% of the total allocated funds.
- Allocation to states being done on the basis of incidence of poverty, direct, disbursement of central assistance to districts.
- Preference is given to works which have potential of maximum direct benefit to poverty groups like Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) and Million Well Scheme (MWE).
- Higher priority to works for infrastructure of other poverty alleviation programmes like IRDP, DPAP, DDP etc.
- Development of private land belonging to small and marginal farmers below poverty line, works related to land development, drainage construction are to be under-taken.
- The first stream of JRY emphasises on the SC/ST population. The allocation of resources to the states/union territories is based in proportion to their rural poor.
- Allocation from the states to the districts is made on the index of backwardness based on the SC/ST population in the district.
- In turn the district administration selects the backward groups and passes on 80 percent of the funds to the Panchayats while the remaining 20 percent is kept for inter-block or inter-village works.
- There are two sub schemes in the first stream of JRY viz., Indira Awas Yojana and Million Wells Scheme.
Indira Awas Yojana (IAY)
- It was launched in 1985-86 as a sub-scheme of RLEGP and continued as a part of Jawahar Rozgar Yojana, since its launching during April 1989.
- The primary objective of the scheme was to provide free housing to members of SC/ST community and to free subsequently raised to 10% since 1993-94.
- Its scope has been extended to cover non SC/ST rural poor not exceeding 4% of the total allocation in the year 1988-89.
Million Wells Scheme (MWS)
- It was launched in the year 1988-89 as a sub-scheme of NREP, RLEGP and is being continued under the JRY.
- The primary objective of the scheme was to provide open irrigation wells to small and marginal farmers amongst the SC/STs and to free bonded labourers.
- Its scope has been enlarged to cover non-SC/ST small and marginal framers living below the poverty line.
Also known as intensive JRY. Since 1993-94, 20% of the funds under JRY, subject to a minimum of Rs. 700 crore, are being used to intensify JRY of 120 backward districts in different states in the country where there is major concentration of unemployment and underemployment.
- The funds under the scheme are allocated through DRDAs.
- The DRDAs is identify the areas of unemployment and underemployment within a district and take up work in the area from the basket prescribed under the JRY.
- The basket of works include construction of all-weather roads, minor irrigation works, water harvesting structures, waste-land development, farm forestry etc.
- Emphasis has been on watershed based development since 1994-95 to give impetus to the efforts on drought proofing, treatment of drylands and reclamation of waste-lands.
- 50 percent of the funds are being ear-marked for the Watershed Development Plan.
- In a bid to prevent migration of labour 5 percent of allocated fund under JRY, subject to a maximum of Rs. 75 crore is kept for taking up special and innovative projects.
- Schemes which are essential for the main objectives of JRY such as Operation Black Board are included in the third stream of JRY. Side by side many employment generating schemes such as Area Officers Scheme, Prime Minister's Rozgar Yojana, Employment Assurance Scheme etc., have also been launched from time to time—all as a part of Jawahar Rozgar Yojana.
Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS)
- It was launched on October 2, 1993, in 1778 most backward blocks of the country.
- In 1994-95 the scope of the scheme was extended to 2447 blocks mainly situated in the drought prone areas, desert areas, tribal and hill areas.
- It aims at providing gainful employment during the lean agricultural season in form of manual work to persons above 18 years and below 60 years.
- Expenditure is shared by centre and state in the ratio of 80:20.
- A maximum of two adults per family will be provided assured employment for 100 days to unskilled manual work.
- Assistance under the scheme is directly released to DRDAs for direct and quick implementation of the projects under the scheme.
- Contractors are sidelined from the execution of all works as these are directly executed by the respective implementing agencies.
- All works started under EAS should be labour intensive and should contribute to sustained employment generation and development of core infrastructure.
- Persons seeking employment under the scheme must register themselves in the village Panchayats.
- The wages paid to workers under EAS should be the minimum agricultural wages for unskilled labour as prescribed by the concerned state.
- A part of the wage may be paid in the form of foodgrains, not exceeding 2 kgs per man-day and not exceeding 50% of wages in cost.
P.M.’s Rozgar Yojana (PMRY)
- It was announced in August 1993 and launched from October 2, 1993.
- Aims at providing self employment to educated unemployed youths.
- Extended to cover the whole country from 1994-95 onwards.
- Intended to provide employment to one million educated unemployed youths by setting up 7 lakh micro-enterprises by educated unemployed youths.
- Seeks to associate reputed NGOs.
- The eligibility for this scheme is : age group 18-35 years; matric (pass/fail), ITI passed or undergone govt. sponsored technical course for a minimum of 6 months; permanent resident of the area for at least 3 years; family income must be less than Rs. 24000 per annum.
- Preference is given to weaker sections including women, SC and ST are provided a reservation of 22.5% and another 27% for OBCs.
- A high level committee under the Secretary, Small Scale Industries and Agro and Rural Industries is constantly reviewing and monitoring the scheme.
Drought Prone Area Development Programme
- It was started in 1973 to restrict damage to rainfed areas due to drought.
- It aimed at:-
- promotion of productive dryland agriculture with suitable cropping pattern.
- soil and moisture conservation.
- development and suitable cropping pattern.
- soil and moisture conservation.
- development and productive use of water resources.
- afforestation including development of fodder resources.
- other activities like horticulture and sericulture being encouraged.
- It was started in 615 blocks of 91 districts in 13 states.
- Under DPAP 4.7 lakh hectare area has been covered under land development, 3.47 lakh hectare under forestry and 2.09 lakh hectare under water resources.
Swarana Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (Golden Jublee Urban Employment Scheme)
- In September 1997, the government merged the three anti-poverty programmes for urban areas — Nehru Rozgar Yojana, Urban Basic Services for the Poor and the Prime Minister's Integrated Urban Poverty Eradication Programme — into one single scheme.
- The new scheme is called the 'Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana' (Golden Jubilee Urban Employment Scheme). The new scheme comes into effect immediately, even as the states have been requested to phase out the existing schemes by November 30, 1997 by finalising all pending cases.
- The proposed new scheme combines the objectives of the three schemes.
- It provides for setting up of self-employment ventures by the urban poor all over the country, and also for wage employment to the needy urban poor in all towns with less than five lakh population.
National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP)
The NSAP was announced on August 15, 1996 and has three components viz.,
- National Old Age Pension Scheme,
- National Family Benefits Scheme and
- National Maternity Benefit Scheme.
Under National Old Age Pension Scheme: Rs. 75 per month would be given to the helpless and people of the age of 65 years and above.
Under National Family Benefit Scheme: A lump sum assistance of Rs. 5,000 is provided in the case of death due to natural causes and Rs. 10,000 in the case of accidental deaths to the poor family on the death of the main bread-earner in the age group 18 to 64.
Under National Maternity Benefit Scheme: An amount of Rs. 300 is given as maternity assistance per pregnancy for prenatal and postnatal maternity care upto the first two live births to women belonging to poor households. The age limitations for eligibility to receive the benefit is 19 years and above.