Read the following instructions very carefully and strictly follow them.
1. The question paper comprises five sections - A, B, C, D and E. There are 32 questions in the question paper. All questions are compulsory.
2. Section A - Question no. 1 to 16 are Objective Type Questions of 1 mark each.
3. Section B - Question no. 17 to 22 are Short Answer Type Questions, carrying 3 marks each. The answer to each question should not exceed 80 words.
4. Section C - Question no. 23 to 26 are Source Based Questions, carrying 4 marks each.
5. Section D - Question no. 27 to 31 are Long Answer Type Questions, carrying 5 marks each. The answer to each question should not exceed 120 words.
6. Section E - Question no. 32 is Map-Based, carrying 5 marks with two parts, 32.1 from History (2 marks) and 32.2 from Geography (3 marks).
7. There is no overall choice in the question paper. However, an internal choice has been provided in a few questions. Only one of the choices in such questions has to be attempted.
8. In addition to this, separate instructions are given with each section and question, wherever necessary.
Q.1. The national anthem of Britain is called _____________. (1 marks)
(a) Britain our land!
(b) God save our noble king!
(c) Hail the King!
(d) Together, the British are stronger!
The symbols of the new Britain the British flag (Union Jack), the national anthem (God save our noble king) and the English language – were actively promoted in the process of the Unification of Britain.
Q.2. Who designed the Swaraj flag and when? (1 marks)
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi designed the Swaraj flag in 1921.
Who wrote Anandmath?
Ans. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay wrote ‘Anandmath’.
Q.3. Read the source given below and answer the following question. (1 marks)
How could non-cooperation become a movement? Mahatma Gandhiji proposed that the movement should unfold in stages. It should begin with the surrender of titles that the government awarded, and a boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils, schools, and foreign goods. Then, in case the government used repression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched. Many within the Congress were, however, concerned about the proposals.
A compromise between the supporters and opponents of the Non-cooperation movement was worked out in the Congress session at:
Q.4. What is an investment? (1 marks)
Ans. Investment is the money that is spent to buy assets such as land building, machines and other equipment. Investment in a company can be made by any other company or multinational corporations (MNCs).
Q.5. Arrange the following options in the correct sequence. (1 marks)
(i) Deposit extra cash with bank
(ii) Withdraw money
(iii) Write a cheque
(iv) Open a bank account
(a) (i) - (ii) - (iii) - (iv)
(b) (i) - (iii) - (ii) - (iv)
(c) (iv) - (i) - (iii) - (ii)
(d) (iv) - (iii) - (ii) - (i)
Q.6. In the question given below, there are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option. (1 marks)
Assertion (A): Collateral is an asset that the borrower owns and provides as a guarantee to the lender until the loan is repaid.
Reason (R): Till the loan is repaid, the asset belongs to the lender.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true.
(b) Both are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.
Q.7. There are four families living in a neighbourhood. The average per capita income of these families is Rs. 6000. The income of three families is Rs. 4000, Rs. 7000 and Rs. 5000 respectively.
On the basis of the information given above, calculate the income of the fourth family and choose the correct option: (1 marks)
(a) Rs. 8000
(b) Rs. 3000
(c) Rs. 2000
(d) Rs. 6000
► Per capita income is the total income of the country/state divided by the number of people in that country/state.
► Let the income of the fourth family be A,
Here are a total of four families. The average per capita income (6000) is equal to
Income of fourth family is Rs. 20,000 - Rs. 14,000 = Rs. 6,000.
Q.8. Correct the following statement and rewrite (1 marks)
Bahujan Samaj Party seeks to represent and secure power for Dalits only.
Ans. Bahujan Samaj Party seeks to represent and secure power for the Dalits, Adivasis, OBCs and religious minorities.
Bharatiya Janata Party supports socialism, secularism and democracy and opposes imperialism, and communalism.
Ans. Communist Party of India - Marxist supports socialism, secularism and democracy and opposes imperialism and communalism.
Q.9. Different persons can have different ____________. (1 marks)
Ans. Developmental goals
Q.10. Groundwater is an example of __________________.
Ans. Renewable resources
Q.11. Which of the following was the reason for calling off ‘the Non- cooperation Movement’ by Gandhiji? (1 Mark)
(a) Pressure from the British Government
(b) Second Round Table Conference
(c) Gandhiji’s arrest
(d) Chauri- Chaura incident
Q.12. Choose the correctly matched pair about the Primitive Cultivation in India from the following. (1 Mark)
(a) Dahiya-Madhya Pradesh
(c) Khil-Andhra Pradesh
Q.13. Identify the soil with the help of the following features. (1 Mark)
Ans. Arid Soil
Q.14. Define Majoritarianism. (1 Mark)
Ans. A belief that the majority of the community should be able to rule a country in whichever way it wants, by disregarding the wishes and needs of the minority.
Define Ethnicity. (1 Mark)
Ans. A social division based on shared culture/ people belonging to the same ethnic group believe in their common descent.
Q.15. Read the given data and find out which country has the most equitable distribution of income. (1 Mark)
(a) Country A
(b) Country B
(c) Country C
(d) Country D
Q.16. Read the information given below and select the correct option. (1 Mark)
Mohan is an agricultural labourer. There are several months in a year when he has no work and needs credit to meet his daily expenses. He depends upon his employer, the landowner for credit who charges an interest rate of 5 per cent per month. Mohan repays the money by working physically for the landowner on his farmland.
Over the years his debt will:
(a) Increase - because of increasing interest and non-payment of the monthly amount
(b) Remain constant - as he is working for the employer but is repaying less
(c) Reduce - as an amount equivalent to his salary is being counted as monthly repayment
(d) Be totally repaid - as he is repaying the debt in the form of physical labour
Q.17. What are the advantages of pipeline transportation? (3 marks)
➤ Pipeline Transportation is very useful for the transportation of fluids and semi-solid slurry because it reduces a lot of wastage.
➤ The initial cost might be high but maintenance is fairly simpler and the transport line system is robust.
➤ It is quick and very efficient.
➤ It rules out all kinds of trans-shipments delays.
Q.18. Mention three positive consequences of power-sharing. (3 marks)
Power sharing is important because:
Mention any three steps taken towards decentralisation in India in 1992?
Three steps taken towards decentralisation in 1992 are:
Q.19. What was the Rowlatt Act about? What were its consequences? (3 marks)
Q.20. Write a short note about the participation of women in Civil Disobedience.
Q.21. Suggest a few steps that can be taken by the government to make Indian agriculture more successful and profitable. (3 marks)
Ans. Following are a few steps that can be taken by the government to make Indian agriculture more successful and profitable:
What is food security? How does the government ensure food security for all citizens of India?
Q.22. Explain some of the possible steps that the government can take to make globalisation fairer. (3 marks)
The government can make globalisation fairer through the following measures:
Q.23. Read the source given below and answer the following questions: (4 Mark)
Swapna, a small farmer, grows groundnut on her three acres of land. She takes a loan from the moneylender to meet the expenses of cultivation, hoping that her harvest would help repay the loan. Midway through the season, the crop is hit by pests and the crop fails. Though Swapna sprays her crops with expensive pesticides, it makes little difference. She is unable to repay the moneylender and the debt grows over the year into a large amount. Next year, Swapna takes a fresh loan for cultivation. It is a normal crop this year, But the earnings are not enough to cover the old loan. She is caught in debt. She has to sell a part of the land to pay off the debt.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.
(i) The passage given above relates to which of the following options?
(a) Crop failure
(b) Interest on the loan
(c) Terms of credit
(ii) Swapna takes a loan from the ________ to meets the expenses of cultivation.
(iii) Why does Swapna not repay the loan?
(a) Due to her illness
(b) Due to draught
(c) Due to crop failure
(d) None of the above
(iv) What does Swapna grow on her land?
Q.24. Read the source given below and answer the following questions : (4 Mark)
Federalism is a system of government in which the power is divided between a central authority and various constituent units of the country. Usually, a federation has two levels of government. One is the government for the entire country that is usually responsible for a few subjects of common national interest. The others are governments at the level of provinces or states that look after much of the dayto-day administering of their state. Both these levels of governments enjoy their power independent of the other. In this sense, federations are contrasted with unitary governments. Under the unitary system, either there is only one level of government or the sub-units are subordinate to the central government. The central government can pass on orders to the provincial or the local government. But in a federal system, the central government cannot order the state government to do something. The state government has powers of its own for which it is not answerable to the central government. Both these governments are separately answerable to the people.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.
(i) Usually, a federation has _________ levels of government.
(ii) Which of the following types of government is responsible for the whole country?
(a) State government
(b) Central government
(c) Local government
(d) Community government
(iii) Central and state governments are separately answerable to the _______.
(c) Each other
(iv) Under which of the following systems, the central government can pass on orders to the provincial government?
(a) Federal system
(c) Unitary system
Q.25. Read the source given below and answer the following questions : (4 Mark)
Millets: Jowar, bajra and ragi are the important millets grown in India. ‘Though these are known as coarse grains, they have very high nutritional value. For example, ragi is very rich in iron, calcium, other micronutrients and roughage. Jowar is the third most important food crop with respect to area and production. It is a rain-fed crop mostly grown in moist areas which hardly needs irrigation. Major Jowar producing States are Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.
(i) Jowar, __________ and ragi are important millets grown in India.
(ii) Which of the following millets is very rich in iron, calcium, other micronutrients and roughage?
(iii) Which of the following states is the largest producer of Jowar?
(a) Andhra Pradesh
(b) Madhya Pradesh
(iv) _________ is a rain-fed crop mostly grown in moist areas which hardly needs irrigation.
Q.26. Read the source given below and answer the following questions : (4 Mark)
One such individual was the Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Mazzini. Born in Genoa in 1807, he became a member of the secret society of the Carbonari. As a young man of 24, he was sent into exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria. He subsequently founded two more underground societies, first, Young Italy in Marseilles, and then, Young Europe in Berne, whose members were like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and the German states. Mazzini believed that God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind. So Italy could not continue to be a patchwork of small states and kingdoms. It had to be forged into a single unified republic within a wider alliance of nations. This unification alone could be the basis of Italian liberty. Following his model, secret societies were set up in Germany, France, Switzerland and Poland. Mazzini’s relentless opposition to monarchy and his vision of democratic republics frightened the conservatives. Metternich described him as ‘the most dangerous enemy of our social order’.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.
(i) Where was Giuseppe Mazzini born?
(ii) Giuseppe Mazzini was sent into exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in __________.
(iii) Who described Mazzini as 'the most dangerous enemy of our social order'?
(iv) Which of the following societies was founded in Berne?
(a) Young Europe
(b) Young Germany
(c) Young Italy
(d) Young Britain
Q.27. Why did Mahatma Gandhi decide to join the Khilafat movement? Describe its association with the Non-cooperation movement and its importance. (5 marks)
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi wanted to make his ‘Satyagraha’ movement more inclusive. He realised that this could be possible only if Hindus and Muslims came together and joined it. He found the Khilafat issue strong enough to bring about this unity. The First World War had given a death blow to the Ottoman Empire of Turkey. The British had promised generous treatment to the Khalifa, but they did not keep up the promise. The Khalifa was considered the spiritual head of the Muslims and a protector of their holy places. By 1920, the British had totally dismembered the Turkish Empire.
To defend the Khalifa’s powers, a Khilafat committee was organised in Bombay under the Ali brothers, Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, in March 1919. Gandhi was invited by the Ali brothers to join this committee. At the Calcutta session of the Congress in September 1920, Gandhi convinced other leaders to support the Khilafat movement and start the Non-cooperation movement for Swaraj along with the Khilafat movement. Along with the Ali brothers, he toured India and gathered support for the movement. All Congress Committees adopted the Khilafat resolutions in 1921 and supported its four-point programme.
The importance of the Khilafat movement is that it brought the Hindus and the Muslims under one cause. The Muslims also became a part of the national movement. This made it more inclusive.
What do you mean by nation-states? How did they emerge?
Ans. Nation-states were independent states formed with a democratic constitution, united citizens and emotions of brotherhood, belongingness and patriotism.
The basis of nation-states was on parliamentary principles - a constitution, freedom of the press and freedom of association. Nation-states were born in a place of multinational dynastic empires of Europe. Citizens and rulers of Nation-states developed a sense of common identity, shared history and descent. This shared identity was forged through the struggles, actions of leaders and common people.
Nation-states emerged as a consequence of nationalism which brought sweeping changes in the political and mental world of Europe.
Q.28. Why does the textile industry occupy a unique position in the Indian economy? (5 marks)
Ans. The textile industry occupies a unique position in the Indian economy because:
(1) The textile industry contributes significantly to industrial production, i.e. about 14%. The wide market and availability of transport, banking and electricity facilities in almost all parts of the country have led to the spread of textile mills in different areas of the country.
(2) It is the only industry in India that is self - reliant and complete in the value chain, i.e. from raw material to the highest value-added products.
(3) The textile industry is a labour-intensive industry, so a large number of people are employed at different stages of its working such as ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, designing, printing, tailoring and sewing.
(4) The textile industry not only employs a lot of people, it also provides a huge amount of foreign exchange earnings to the country.
Thus the position of the textile industry in India is very significant and unique.
Q.29. Analyse the role of manufacturing industries in the economic development of a country.
Ans. The role of manufacturing industries in the development of the country:
(1) Manufacturing industries help in modernising agriculture, which forms the backbone of the Indian economy.
(2) Manufacturing industries also reduce the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.
(3) Industrial development reduces unemployment and poverty.
(4) It also brings down regional and economical disparities in the country.
(5) Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce and brings home foreign exchange.
(6) The prosperity of a country depends on transforming raw materials into finished goods of higher values and diversifying its industries.
(7) The industrial sector contributes 27% of GDP and manufacturing contributes about 17% of GDP.
Q.30. State the various functions of political parties in India. (5 marks)
Ans. A political party that mainly has three components:
(i) namely the leaders
(ii) the active members and
(iii) the followers have multiple functions to follow in a democracy like India.
Since we’re a multi-party system, there exist various national and state parties who contest elections every 5 years.
(1) Parties contest elections, form & run the government: One of their main function is to contest elections in order to win over the people, gain authority and run a responsible, legitimate and popular government that takes care of the interests of all communities, classes and genders before taking any actions or big decision in any field. Top party leaders choose representatives who contest elections win the majority of seats and form and run the government.
(2) Parties put forward policies and programmes: Political parties put forward various policies and programmes for the voters/people to choose from. People have a large number of different opinions and views on what policies are suitable for society. Parties group together similar opinions to get a direction in which policies can be formed by the government.
(3) Parties make laws: Parties play a decisive role in making laws for a country.
(4) Parties shape public opinion: They raise and highlight issues. Parties have lakhs of members and activists spread all over the country. Thus they help increase the political participation of the people in a country’s politics.
(5) Parties provide people access: Access to government machinery and welfare schemes implemented by governments. They find it easier to convey their requirements to a local leader than to a government officer. That is why people feel close to parties even when they don’t trust them fully.
(6) Parties play the role of the opposition: Those parties that lose the elections play the role of the opposition to the party in power by voicing different views and criticizing the government for its wrong policies. These parties also extend their active support to the government during the national emergency in the country.
Q.31. What is federalism? Underline how federalism is practised in India. (5 marks)
Ans. Federalism is a system of government in which power is divided between a central authority and various constituent units of a country. Federalism is practised in India in the following ways:
(1) Division of powers: Three-fold distribution of legislative powers between central and state governments in the form of Union List, State List and Concurrent List where the authority of making laws over mentioned subjects has been divided between the two is a way in which co-operative federalism works in our country.
(2) Language policy: Constitution does not declare any one language as the national language. Besides Hindi, 21 other languages are declared or recognised as Scheduled languages of the country. Thus, the interests of both Hindi-speaking and non-Hindi- speaking regions are preserved.
(3) Power sharing is basic to the structure of the constitution: The sharing and distribution of powers between the union government and the state governments are basic to the structure of the constitution. It is not easy to make changes to this power-sharing arrangement. Any change to it requires a 2/3rd majority of both the houses of parliament and ratification of at least half of the total states.
32. (i) Two places (A) and (B) are marked on the given political outline map of India. Identify them and write their correct names on the lines drawn near them.
(A) The place is known for the Indigo Planters Movement. (1 Mark)
(B) The place which is known for Cotton Mill Workers Satyagraha. (1 Mark)
(ii) On the same outline map of India, locate and label any three of the following with appropriate symbols:
(a) Namrup: Thermal Power Plant
(b) Kandla: Major Seaport
(c) Bhilai : Iron and Steel Plant
(d) Bhakra Nangal: Dam
(e) Noida: Software Technology Park (3 Mark)
Ans. (i) & (ii)