Class - X
TIME: 3 Hrs.
General Instructions :
Read the following instructions very carefully and strictly follow them :
1. The question paper comprises five sections - A, B, C, D and E. There are 32 questions in the question paper. All questions are compulsory.
2. Section A - Question no. 1 to 16 are Objective Type Questions of 1 mark each.
3. Section B - Question no. 17 to 22 are Short Answer Type Questions, carrying 3 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 80 words.
4. Section C - Question no. 23 to 26 are Source Based Questions, carrying 4 marks each.
5. Section D - Question no. 27 to 31 are Long Answer Type Questions, carrying 5 marks each. Answer to each question should not exceed 120 words.
6. Section E - Question no. 32 is Map Based, carrying 5 marks with two parts, 32.1 from History (2 marks) and 32.2 from Geography (3 marks).
7. There is no overall choice in the question paper. However, an internal choice has been provided in few questions. Only one of the choices in such questions has to be attempted.
8. In addition to this, separate instructions are given with each section and question, wherever necessary.
Q.1. Study the picture and answer the question that follows: (1 Mark)
Which of the following personalities is shown in the given image?
(a) Vallabhbhai Patel
(b) C. R. Das
(c) Motilal Nehru
(d) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Ans: (d) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Q.2. Who among the following formed the secret society called `Young Italy ’? (1 Mark)
(a) Otto Von Bismarck
(b) Giuseppe Mazzini
(c) Johann Gottfried Herder
(d) Duke Metternich
Ans: (b) Giuseppe Mazzini
Q.3. Match the following items given in Column A with those in Column B. Choose the correct answer from the options given below : (1 Mark)
Column - A
Column - B
Congress Of Vienna
(a) (i)-(b), (ii)-(c), (iii)-(d), (iv)-(a)
(b) (i)-(d), (ii)-(a), (iii)-(b), (iv)-(c)
(c) (i)-(b), (ii)-(a), (iii)-(c), (iv)-(d)
(d) (i)-(a), (ii)-(d), (iii)-(b), (iv)-(c)
Ans: (a) (i) - (b), (ii) - (c), (iii) - (d); (iv) - (a)
Q.4. Fill in the blanks : (1 Mark)
Types of Resources
Biotic and Abiotic
Renewable and Non- renewable
Ans: (A) On the basis of origin
(B) On the basis of exhaustibility
Q.5. Name any two plantation crops. (1 Mark)
Ans: Tea and coffee.
What are millets?
Ans: The coarse grains which have very high nutritional value are called millets.
Q.6. Which one of the following cities has emerged as the `electronic capital’ of India? (1 Mark)
Ans: (b) Bengaluru
Q.7. What is the major objective to develop Super Highways? (1 Mark)
Ans: To reduce the time and distance between the mega cities of India.
Q.8. Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) is an example of _____ industry. (1 Mark)
Ans: Information Technology (IT)
Q.9. State any one function of gram panchayat. (1 Mark)
Ans: It is the decision making body for the entire village.
State any one role of the State Election Commission.
Ans: The State Election is a body created in each state to conduct panchayat and municipal elections.
Q.10. Which of the following leader is shown in this cartoon? (1 Mark)
(a) Rajiv Gandhi
(b) I. K. Gujral
(c) H. D. Deve Gowda
(d) A. B. Vajpayee
Ans: (d) A. B. Vajpayee
Q.11. Correct the following statement and rewrite:
Dictatorship provides a method to resolve conflicts. (1 Mark)
Ans: Democracy provides a method to resolve conflicts.
Dictatorship is preferred over democracy everywhere except Pakistan.
Ans: Democracy is preferred over dictatorship everywhere except Pakistan.
Q.12. Find the incorrect option : (1 Mark)
(a) Fair globalization would create opportunities for all.
(b) MNCs are playing a major role in the globalization process.
(c) Globalization has led to improvement in living conditions of all the people.
(d) MNCs have increased their investment in India over the past 20 years.
Ans: (c) Globalization has led to improvement in living conditions of all the people.
Q.13. In the question given below, there are two examples - statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option : (1 Mark)
Assertion (A) : Under MGNREGA 2005, all those who are able to and are in need of work in rural areas are guaranteed 100 days of employment in a year.
Reason (R) : The Central Government in India made a law implementing the Right to work in about 625 districts of India.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(d) Both (A) and (B) are wrong.
Ans: (a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
Q.14. ___________ and the pressure of competition have substantially changed the lives of workers. (1 Mark)
___________ particularly IT, has played a big role in organising production across countries.
Q.15. An asset that the borrower owns (such as land, building, vehicle, etc.) and uses this as a guarantee to a lender until the loan is repaid. If the borrower fails to repay the loan, the lender has the right to sell the asset to obtain payment. (1 Mark)
Analyse the information given above, considering one of the following options correct :
(a) Terms of credit
(d) Demand deposit
Ans: (b) Collateral
Q.16. Professor Muhammad Yunus is the founder of which one of the following banks? (1 Mark)
(a) Cooperative Bank
(b) Grameen Bank
(c) Commercial Bank
(d) Land Development Bank
Ans: (b) Grameen Bank
Q.17. Describe any three economic hardships faced by Europe in 1830s. (3 Mark)
Ans: Economic hardships faced by Europe in 1830s are:
(a) The first half of the 19t h century saw an enormous increase in population all over Europe.
(b) Job-seekers were more and employment opportunities were less.
(c) People from rural areas migrated to cities and made cities over-crowded slums.
(d) Small producers often faced stiff competition from imports of cheap machine-made goods.
(e) Peasants struggled under the burden of feudal dues and obligations.
How had revolutionaries spread their ideas in many European States after 1815? Explain with examples.
Ans: (i) After 1815, many liberal nationalists went underground for the fear of repression. Secret societies emerged in many European states to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas. Giuseppe Mazzi- ni, an Italian revolutionary, founded two underground societies—first Young Italy in Marseilles and the second Young Europe in Berne. Following the footsteps of Mazzini, many secret societies were set up in Germany, France, Switzerland and Poland.
(ii) Romanticism was a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment. The romantics used folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances to popularize the true spirit of the nation. For example, Karol Kurpinski celebrated the national struggle through his operas and music in Poland. He turned folk dances like polonaise and mazurka into nationalist symbols.
(iii) Language also played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. For example, it was mainly used as a weapon of national resistance when the Polish language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere in Poland.
Q.18. How could Non- cooperation become a movement? Give your opinion. (3 Mark)
Ans: Non- Cooperation became a movement:
(i) It was the view of Gandhiji that the British rule was set in India with the cooperation of Indians.
(ii) If Indians refused cooperation, British rule in India would collapse within a year and Swaraj would come.
(iii) Gandhiji proposed that the movement should unfold in stages.
(iv) In case the government used repression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched.
(v) Mahatma Gandhi and Shaukat Ali toured extensively, mobilising popular support of the movement.
(vi) It should begin with surrender of titles that government awarded and a boycott of civil services, police, courts and legislative councils, schools and foreign goods.
Q.19. Mention any three features of arid soils. (3 Mark)
Ans: (i) Arid soils range from red to brown in colour.
(ii) They are generally sandy in texture and saline in nature.
(iii) Due to dry climate and high temperature, the evaporation is faster and the soil lacks humus and moisture.
(iv) The lower horizons of the soil are occupied by Kankar because of the increasing flow of calcium content downwards.
Q.20. “Some people think that democracy produces less efficient government”. Give reasons. (3 Mark)
Ans: It is true some people think that democracy produces a less effective government because :
(i) Non- democratic rulers do not have to bother about deliberation in assemblies or worry about majorities and public opinion.
(ii) They can be very quick and efficient in decision making and implementation.
(iii) But democracy is based on the idea of deliberation and negotiation. So, some delay is bound to take place.
(iv) Most democracies fall short of elections that provide a fair chance to everyone.
(v) Democratic governments do not have a very good record when it comes to sharing information with citizens.
(vi) Democracies often frustrate the needs of the people and often ignore the demands of a majority of their population.
Q.21. “For development, people look at a mix of goals”. Support the statement with three suitable examples. (3 Mark)
“Money cannot buy all the goods and services that a person may need to live well”. Explain the statement with suitable examples.
Ans: It is true that for development, people look at a mix of goals, e.g.:
(i) If women are engaged in paid work, their dignity in the household and society increases. So, dignity is an important goal.
(ii) However, it is also the case that if there is respect for women, there would be more sharing of housework and greater acceptance of women working outside.
(iii) A safe and secure environment may allow more women to take up a variety of jobs or run a business. These are goals other than income. Hence, the development goal is not only for better income, but also for other important things in life.
Q.22. What are the differences in the employment conditions between organised and unorganised sectors of the economy? (3 Mark)
Ans: Service conditions of Organised and Unorganized Sectors :
(i) Organised sector is registered by the government whereas, the unorganized sector is largely outside the control of the government.
(ii) In organised sector, the workers enjoy the security of employment, whereas in unorganized sector, jobs are insecure, low paid and irregular.
(iii) In organised sector, the number of working hours are fixed, whereas in unorganized sector, the number of working hours are not fixed.
(iv) In organised sector, workers get several benefits such as paid leaves, payment during holidays, provident fund, etc., whereas in unorganized sector, such facilities are not available.
(v) Any other relevant point.
Q.23. Read the source given below and answer the following questions : (4 Mark)
One such individual was the Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Mazzini. Born in Genoa in 1807, he became a member of the secret society of the Carbonari. As a young man of 24, he was sent into exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria. He subsequently founded two more underground societies, first, Young Italy in Marseilles, and then, Young Europe in Berne, whose members were likeminded young men from Poland, France, Italy and the German states. Mazzini believed that God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind. So Italy could not continue to be a patchwork of small states and kingdoms. It had to be forged into a single unified republic within a wider alliance of nations. This unification alone could be the basis of Italian liberty. Following his model, secret societies were set up in Germany, France, Switzerland and Poland. Mazzini’s relentless opposition to monarchy and his vision of democratic republics frightened the conservatives. Metternich described him as ‘the most dangerous enemy of our social order’.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.
23.1 Where was Giuseppe Mazzini born?
Ans: (c) Genoa
23.2 Giuseppe Mazzini was sent into exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in __________.
Ans: (b) Liguria
23. 3 Who described Mazzini as 'the most dangerous enemy of our social order'?
Ans: (c) Metternich
23.4 Which of the following societies was founded in Berne?
(a) Young Europe
(b) Young Germany
(c) Young Italy
(d) Young Britain
Ans: (a) Young Europe
Q.24. Read the source given below and answer the following questions : (4 Mark)
Millets: Jowar, bajra and ragi are the important millets grown in India. ‘Though, these are known as coarse grains, they have very high nutritional value. For example, ragi is very rich in iron, calcium, other micro nutrients and roughage. Jowar is the third most important food crop with respect to area and production. It is a rain-fed crop mostly grown in the moist areas which hardly needs irrigation. Major Jowar producing States are Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.
24.1 Jowar, __________ and ragi are important millets grown in India.
Ans: (a) Bajra
24.2 Which of the following millets is very rich in iron, calcium, other micro nutrients and roughage?
Ans: (c) Ragi
24.3 Which of the following states is the largest producer of Jowar?
(a) Andhra Pradesh
(b) Madhya Pradesh
Ans: (d) Maharashtra
24.4 _________ is a rain-fed crop mostly grown in the moist areas which hardly needs irrigation.
Ans: (a) Jowar
Q.25. Read the source given below and answer the following questions : (4 Mark)
Federalism is a system of government in which the power is divided between a central authority and various constituent units of the country. Usually, a federation has two levels of government. One is the government for the entire country that is usually responsible for a few subjects of common national interest. The others are governments at the level of provinces or states that look after much of the dayto-day administering of their state. Both these levels of governments enjoy their power independent of the other. In this sense, federations are contrasted with unitary governments. Under the unitary system, either there is only one level of government or the sub-units are subordinate to the central government. The central government can pass on orders to the provincial or the local government. But in a federal system, the central government cannot order the state government to do something. State government has powers of its own for which it is not answerable to the central government. Both these governments are separately answerable to the people.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.
25.1 Usually, a federation has _________ levels of government.
Ans: (c) two
25.2 Which of the following types of government is responsible for the whole country?
(a) State government
(b) Central government
(c) Local government
(d) Community government
Ans: (b) Central government
25.3 Central and state governments are separately answerable to the _______ .
(c) each other
Ans: (a) People
25.4 Under which of the following systems, the central government can pass on orders to the provincial government?
(a) Federal system
(c) Unitary system
Ans: (c) Unitary system
Q.26. Read the source given below and answer the following questions: (4 Mark)
Swapna, a small farmer, grows groundnut on her three acres of land. She takes a loan from the moneylender to meet the expenses of cultivation, hoping that her harvest would help repay the loan. Midway through the season, the crop is hit by pests and the crop fails. Though Swapna sprays her crops with expensive pesticides, it makes little difference. She is unable to repay the moneylender and the debt grows over the year into a large amount. Next year, Swapna takes a fresh loan for cultivation. It is a normal crop this year, But the earnings are not enough to cover the old loan. She is caught in debt. She has to sell a part of the land to pay off the debt.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.
26.1 The passage given above relates to which of the following options?
(a) Crop failure
(b) Interest on loan
(c) Terms of credit
Ans: (d) Debt-trap
26.2 Swapna takes a loan from the ________ to meets the expenses of cultivation.
Ans: (b) Moneylender
26.3 Why does Swapna not repay the loan?
(a) Due to her illness
(b) Due to draught
(c) Due to crop failure
(d) None of the above
Ans: (c) Due to crop failure
26.4 What does Swapna grow on her land?
Ans: (d) Groundnut
Q.27. Describe the incident and impact of the Jallianwala Bagh. (5 Mark)
Ans: Incident and Impact of the Jallianwala Bagh :
On 13th April 1919, a large crowd gathered in Jallianwala Bagh.
Some of them had come to protest against the government's new repressive measures and others had come to attend Baisakhi fair.
General Dyer entered the area, blocked the exit points and opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds to create a feeling of terror.
(i) As the news spread, crowd took to the streets in North Indian towns.
(ii) There were strikes, clashes with police.
(iii) Attacks on government buildings.
(iv) The government responded with brutal repression to terrorise people.
(v) Satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground.
(vi) People were flogged and villages were bombed.
(vii) The British violated the freedom of speech and expression.
Why was the `Salt March’ considered an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism? Explain.
Ans: Salt March :
(i) Salt was consumed by all the sections of the society.
(ii) It was the most essential item of food.
(iii) The tax on salt and the government monopoly over production.
(iv) Gandhiji found salt as a powerful symbol that could unite the nation.
(v) On 31 January 1930, he sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands.
(vi) The idea was to make the demands wide ranging, so that all classes within Indian society could identify with them and everyone could be brought together in a united campaign.
(vii) The most stirring of all was the demand to abolish the salt tax.
Q.28. Name the two most important cereal crops grown in India. Describe the conditions required to grow these two crops. (5 Mark)
Ans: The main cereal crops : Rice & Wheat
Conditions for growing rice :
(i) High temperature above 25°C.
(ii) High humidity with annual rainfall above 100 cms.
(iii) Important Kharif crop.
Conditions for growing wheat :
(i) Rainfall 50-75 cms.
(ii) Low temperature with bright sunshine.
(iii) Important Rabi crop.
Rice and wheat are the two most important cereal crops grown in India.
(i) Rice : This crop is grown well in hot and moist climate. The geographical conditions required for rice cultivation are :
Plenty of cheap labour is also required for the production of rice. HYV seeds, plenty of chemical manure, irrigation water, can produce more rice, nd
(ii) Wheat: Wheat is the 2 most important food crop of India. It is the crop of temperate region. In India, it is grown in winter. It is more dependent on climate than soil. The geographical conditions required for wheat cultivation are mentioned below :
Q.29. Explain with examples the accommodative experience of Belgium for peace and harmony. (5 Mark)
Ans: The accommodative experience of Belgium for peace and harmony:
(i) The path of accommodation was adopted in Belgium.
(ii) Dutch and French speaking ministers got equal share in the Central Government.
(iii) Many powers of the Central Government have been given to State Government.
(iv) The State Government was not subordinate to the Central Government.
(v) Brussels has a separate government in which both the communities have equal representation.
(vi) There is a third kind of government called Community Government elected by the people belonging to Dutch, French and German no matter where they live.
The main elements of the power sharing model evolved in Belgium are :
(i) Constitution prescribes that the number of Dutch and French speaking ministers shall be equal in the Central Government. Some special laws require the support of the majority of members from each linguistic group. Thus, no single community can make decisions unilaterally.
(ii) Many powers of the central government have been given to State Governments of the two regions of the country. The State Governments are not subordinated to the Central Government.
(iii) Brussels has a separate government in which both the communities have equal representation. The French-speaking people accepted equal representation in Brussels because the Dutch-speaking community has accepted equal representation in the Central Government.
(iv) Apart from the central and the state governments, there is a third kind of government called the Community Government.
(v) The community government is elected by people belonging to one language community—Dutch, French and German speaking. This government has the power regarding cultural, educational and language issues.
Q.30. Describe the necessity of political parties in democratic countries. (5 Mark)
Ans: "Political parties are a necessary condition for a democracy" because :
(i) Without political parties, democracies cannot exist.
(ii) If we do not have political parties, in such a situation every candidate in elections will be independent.
(iii) No one will be able to make any promises to the people about any major policy changes.
(iv) The government may be formed but its utility will remain uncertain.
(v) Elected representatives will be accountable to their constituency for what they do in their locality.
(vi) But no one will be responsible for how the country will run.
(vii) The role of an opposition party in a democracy necessitates the existence of political parties.
(viii) As societies become large and complex, they also need some agencies to gather different views on various issues and to present these to the government, that's why, political parties are needed.
Describe the efforts to reform political parties in India.
Ans: Effective measures to reform political parties are :
(i) A law should be made to regulate the internal affairs of political parties.
(ii) It should be made compulsory for political parties to maintain a register of its members.
(iii) It should be made mandatory for political parties to give a minimum number of tickets, about 1/3rd to its women candidates.
(iv) There should be a quota for women in the decision making bodies of the party.
(v) There should be state funding of elections.
(vi) The government should give parties money to support their election expenses in kind: petrol, paper, telephone, etc., or in cash.
(vii) Vote casting should be made compulsory in each election.
(viii) Data regarding caste and religion, OBC, SC, ST should not be utilized during election period in any form.
Q.31. Why do multinational corporations (MNCs) set up their offices and factories in certain areas only? Explain any five reasons. (5 Mark)
Ans: Offices and factories of MNC's .
(i) Availability of raw material.
(ii) Availability of skilled and unskilled labour at low costs.
(iii) Availability of other factors of production is assured like electricity, etc.
(iv) Smaller companies are available.
(v) Where government policies are favourable to investors.
(vi) Any other relevant point.
Following are five reasons why multinational corporations set up their offices and factories in certain areas only:
(i) MNCs set up their companies in areas where they get cheap labour.
(ii) A large industry or a company means far more productivity, so, they need more labour and it will be just their benefit to get cheap labour .
(iii) They select areas with high level of resources so that they can cut off the rate of transportations to an extent.
(iv) By choosing an area which is full of natural resources they can easily set up plants.
(v) By this, they can also provide their products to their consumers more efficiently and with more profit while cutting the costs involved in this.
In recent years how our markets have been transformed? Explain with examples.
Ans: Markets have been transformed in recent years :
(i) We have a wide choice of goods and services before us.
(ii) The latest models of digital cameras, mobile phones and televisions made by the leading manufacturers of the world are within our reach now.
(iii) Example: every season new models of automobiles can be seen on Indian roads.
(iv) Today, Indians are buying cars produced by nearly all the top companies in the world.
(v) A similar explosion of brands can be seen for many other goods; from shirts to televisions to processed fruit juices.
(vi) Any other relevant point.
Map Based Questions
32. (i) Two places (A) and (B) are marked on the given political outline map of India. Identify them and write their correct names on the lines drawn near them.
(A) The place known for Indigo Planters Movement. (1 Mark)
(B) The place which is known for Cotton Mill Workers Satyagraha. (1 Mark)
(ii) On the same outline map of India, locate and label any three of the following with appropriate symbols:
(a) Namrup : Thermal Power Plant
(b) Kandla : Major Seaport
(c) Bhilai : Iron and Steel Plant
(d) Bhakra Nangal : Dam
(e) Noida : Software Technology Park (3 Mark)
Ans: (i) & (ii)