- Shivaji was the master of extensive territories expanding upto Maharastra, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu.
- His empire was divided into two parts: swaraj (own kingdom) or mulk-i-qadim (old territory).
- And an undefined belt of land legally part of the Mughal empire which paid chauth but was not subject to Shivaji's administration.
- A dictionary of official terms, entitled Raja Vyavahara Kosa, was prepared by a panel of experts under the supervision of Raghunath Pandit Hanumante.
- Helped by Ashtapradhan (Eight Ministers) - not a council of ministers, for there is no collective responsibility, but only individual responsibility, i.e., each minister was directly responsible to Shivaji.
(i) Peshwa: Finances and general administration (later he became Prime Minister and very important);
(ii) Sar-i-Naubat: Senapati or military commandar, only a honorary post with on real military powers;
(iii) Majumdar or Amatya: Accountant General (but during the reign of the Peshwas, he became Revenue and Finance Minister);
(iv) Waqanavis: Intelligence, posts and household affairs (Similar to those of Home Minister of today);
(v) Surunavis or Sachiv: Also called "Chitnis" looked after correspondence.
(vi) Dabir Or Sumanta: Master of ceremonies;
(vii) Nyayadhish - Justice;
(viii) Panditrao - Charities and Religious Affairs.
Most of the administrative reforms of Shivaji are based on Malik Ambar's (Ahmednagar) reforms.
- All ministers except the Panditrao and the Nyayadhish had to serve in war whenever necessary.
- Assessment of land revenue based on mea
Points To Be Remembered
- Sumant was also known as dabir. Similarly asta pradhans was also known as surunavis or chitnis.
- The Maratha artillery in the third battle of Panipat was commanded by Ibrahim Khan Gardi.
- The commander-in-chief of the Maratha troops in the third battle of Panipat was Viswas Rao.
- An eyewitness account of the Third battle of Panipat has been provided by Kashiraj Pandit.
- Baji Rao II became pensioner of the British and lived for more than thirty years at Bithur near Kanpur was Baji Rao II.
- Holkar was the last Maratha chief to enter into a subsidiary alliance with the English.
surement; adoption of ‘Khathi’ of Ambar as the measuring rod.
- Increase of land revenue from 33% to 40% in later years.
- Division of “Swarajya” (own kingdom) into number of revenue divisions, called “prants” consisting of 2 or more districts.
- Changes in the position of the hereditary revenue officials, variously called Deshmukhs, Deshpandes, Patils, Kulkarnis, etc.
- Though he did not completely do away with these officials, he considerably reduced their powers by close supervision and strict collection of revenue from them.
- Appointment of his own revenue officials (Subahdars or Karkuns in charge of revenue administration of prants).
- Chauth and Sardeshmukhi: Both were collected not on his “Swaraja” but on an undefined belt of land which was legally part of the Mughal empire or the Deccan States; Chauth-1/4th of the land revenue of this unspecified belt of land paid to Marathas so that land would not be subjected to Maratha raids.
- Saradeshmukhi - an additional levy of 10% on the lands of Maharasthra over which Marathas claimed hereditary rights, but which formed part of the Mughal Empire.
- Payment of ordinary soldiers in cash, but of big chiefs and military commanders through the grant of revenues of "saranjam” or “mokasa” (Jagirs).
- Participation of all ministers, except the last two (Nyayadhish and Panditrao), in war.
- Heirarchy of army officials : Sar-i-Naubat (Senapati), Panch Hazari, Jumladar, Havaldar and Naik.
- Army consisted of Infantry (Mavali footsoldiers played the most important role); cavalry (consisting of Bargis and Silahdars; the former were provided with horses and equipment by the state, while the latter maintained their own) and navy (consisted of two squadrons, each under a Muslim and a Hindu).
- Forts-occupied an important position. Each fort was put under the charge of 3 officers of equal rank as a precaution against treachery, and frequently
Points To Be Remembered
- Shivaji’s conquest of Javli, which commanded the Mavala area, was the beginning of his rise into prominence.
- Shaista Khan was the maternal uncle of Aurangzeb.
- Baji Rao-I assigned different territories to the prominent Maratha chiefs as their “Sphere of Influence”.
- Shivaji killed Afzal Khan after eliciting information from the latter’s Brahmin envoy called Krishnai Bhaskar.
- Shivaji’s greatest military feat was the invasion of Karnatik in 1677-78.
- Tarf was a Maratha administrative division.
- Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadava were enterprising Maratha generals and defeated the Mughal armies a number of times.
- Shivaji II is better known as Shahu.
- Zulfiqur Khan was responsible for the release of Shahu from Mughal imprisonment.
- Baji Rao I compelled the Nizam of Hyderabad to submit to the dictated treaty of Mungi-Shevagaon in 1728.
- Baji Rao II was the last Peshwa of the Marathas.
- Mirasdars were the collective names for deshmukhs and deshpandes.
- After the third battle of Panipat, the lost fortunes of the Maratha empire were restored by Peshwa Madhav Rao I
transferred them (by the end of his reign, Shivaji had 240 forts under him).