Ques 1. What are the possible reasons behind the uneven distribution of population around the world?
Ans: The reasons behind uneven population distribution are mainly the varied conditions of land and climate.
Ques 2. Give three common forms of land use.
Ans: Three common land use forms are: (i) As cropland (ii) Pasture (iii) Forests.
Ques 3. What human factors determine land use pattern?
Ans: Human factors affecting land use pattern are population and technology.
Ques 4. Define soil.
Ans: The thin layer of grainy substance covering the surface of the earth is called soil.
Ques 5. What is required to make soil fertile?
Ans: The right mix of minerals and organic matter is needed to make soil fertile.
Ques 6. What is parent rock?
Ans: The rock from which soil is derived is called parent rock.
Ques 7. What are the factors threatening soil as a resource?
Ans: Two factors that threaten soil as a resource are soil erosion and its depletion.
Ques 8. What method of soil conservation may be used in coastal and dry reqions?
Ans: Shelter belts are used to protect the soil in coastal and dry regions.
Ques 9. Why is the earth called the “water planet”?
Ans: The earth’s surface has about three- fourths water, so it is called “water planet”.
Ques 10. In what forms is fresh water found on the earth?
Ans: Fresh water is found in the forms of groundwater, water in rivers and lakes and as water vapour.
Ques 11 . What is the name given to the process involved in rain formation?
Ans: The process involved in the formation of rain is called “water cycle”.
Ques 12. Name some regions of water scarcity in the world.
Ans: Africa, West Asia, South Asia, parts of western USA, northwest Mexico, parts of South America and Australia face water scarcity.
Ques 13.Name a method to save surface run-off.
Ans: Water harvesting is a method to save surface run-off.
Ques 14. How is a bird like vulture important for the ecosystem?
Ans: A vulture feeds on dead livestock and so it cleanses the environment.
Ques 15. What is the distinguishing feature between evergreen and deciduous forests?
Ans: Evergreen forests never shed their leaves whereas deciduous forests shed their leaves once a year.
Ques 16. What is the Vanamahotsava?
Ans: The social programme of planting trees, organised at community level is called vanamahotsava.
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Ques 1. How is land being degraded? Suggest methods to conserve land resource.
Ans: The ever-growing population has increased demand for living space, due to which forests are being destroyed, thus causing land degradation. The rate of degradation of land resources can be checked by promoting afforestation, land reclamation, regulated use of chemical pesticide and fertilizers and checking overgrazing.
Ques 2. What is weathering?
Ans: Weathering refers to the breaking up and decay of exposed rocks. This breaking up and decay is caused by temperature fluctuations between too high and too low, frost action, plants, animals and even human activity. Weathering is the major process involved in the formation of soil. It takes millions of years to form soil by this process.
Ques 3. How is water an important resource?
Ans: Water is an indispensable resource of life. Firstly water serves the most basic purpose of drinking, without which life is impossible. It is helpful in cleaning our bodies, clothes and utensils. Farmers depend on water for irrigation. Water is also used in cooking food. Water is a source of electricity as well. Plants require water for their growth. Water is required for various industrial purposes in factories.
Ques 4. Write a short note on wildlife.
Ans: The animal kingdom, which consists of animals, birds, aquatic creatures and insects, is called wildlife. These creatures provide us various important products such as milk, meat, hides and wool. Bees give us honey and help in pollination. They play the role of decomposers in the environment. Birds like the vulture are scavengers and they help in cleansing the environment. All forms of wildlife are an integral part of our ecosystem.
Ques 5. What are the major types of vegetation in the world? Describe vegetation in different rainfall conditions.
Ans: The major types of vegetation in the world are grouped as forests, grasslands, scrubs and tundra.” In areas of heavy rain, huge trees can be found. Forests are abundant in areas of heavy rainfall. With moisture and rainfall the density of forests declines. In moderate rainfall areas, grasslands are found. In dry areas we find thorny shrubs and scrubs. Plants here have deep roots and leaves have thorny surface to reduce loss of moisture. The tundra vegetation consists of mosses and lichens.
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS:
Ques 1. Describe methods of soil conservation.
Ans: Some common methods of soil conservation are mentioned below: Mulching. Mulching is the process of covering the bare ground between plants with a layer of organic matter like straw. It contributes in retaining soil moisture.
Terrace Farming. Terrace farming is the method of farming in which broad flat steps or terraces are made on the steep slopes so that flat surfaces are available to grow crops 4 They reduce run-off and soil erosion.
Intercropping: In intercropping, different crops are grown in alternate rows and are sown at different times to protect the soil from being washed away by rain.
Contour Ploughing: Ploughing parallel to the contours of a hill slope to form a natural barrier for water to flow down a slope is called contour ploughing.
Shelter Belts: Rows of trees that are planted in certain areas to check wind movement are called shelter belts. Contour Barriers. Stones, grass and soil are used to build barriers along contours. Trenches are made in front of the barriers to collect water.
Rock Dams: This prevents gullies and further soil loss since rocks are piled up to slow down the flow of water.
Ques 2. What is the threat to vegetation and wildlife? What is the need to conserve them? How can we do this? [V. Imp.]
Ans. Forests and wildlife are an important resource. Climate change and human interference in the animal kingdom can cause loss of natural habitat for plants and animals. Certain species have become endangered and many have become extinct now. Poaching incidents contribute to their extinction. Plants and animals are an important part of the ecosystem. Plants provide food, oxygen and shelter to humans and animals. Animals provide us important products such as milk, meat, honey, etc. There exists a balance in the environment if we do not disturb the natural number of species living on the earth. A single extinction can affect the ecosystem badly. So animals and plants obviously need to be conserved. The government has introduced national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and biosphere reserves for this purpose. Poaching should be severely dealt with. Indiscriminate killings need to be discouraged. Social awareness must be created about importance of trees, social forestry. Students should be involved in vanmahotsavas at regional and community levels.