Ques 1. What was the major impact of electricity on the farmers of Palampur? Explain.
Ans. Electricity reaching in Palampur transformed irrigation system as electric-run tubewells could be used to irrigate much larger areas of land more effectively. Electric tubewell would draw water from well electrically and no manual handling required. Electricity has also facilitated the harvesting of crops with electric harvesters.
Ques 2. What is the basic aim of production. What are the essential four requirements for production?
Ans. Basic aim of production was to produce goods and services that we want. Four requirements for production of goods and services were :
Fig: Natural Resources
Ques 3. What do you mean by working capital? How does it affect the day-to-day activities in farming?
Ans. Raw materials and money in hand is known as working capital. Some money is always required during production to make payments and buy other necessary items. Working capital is related with day-to-day activities in farming like use of seeds, pesticides, insecticides, manure, wages of labour etc. So production in farming is high for more working capital. Higher working capital would facilitate more purchase of seeds, fertilisers and wages, so higher yield would be there.
Ques 4. What do you mean by Rabi crops and Kharif crops? When are they sown and harvested? Give examples also.
Ans. Rabi crops are grown in winter season (between October to December) and harvested in spring season (between mid-late April to mid-late June). Potato, wheat, barley, mustard are Rabi crops.
Kharif crops are sown in rainy season (from July to September) and harvested in autumn season. Examples of Kharif crops are jowar and bajra, sugarcane, cotton, red chillies etc.
Ques 5. What is the difference between multiple cropping and modern farming method?
Ans. To grow more than one crop on a piece of land during the year is known as multiple cropping. For example, sugarcane is sown along with wheat in winter season as sugarcane is harvested once every year. Modern farming methods are the use of improved methods and techniques to be used in agriculture to increase yield per hectare. Use of HYV seeds, insecticides, pesticides, electric tubewell etc. are modern farming methods.
Ques 6. Modern farming methods require the farmers to invest more cash than before. Why? Explain.
Ans. Yes, modern farming methods like use of HYV seeds, chemical fertilisers, electric tubewell for irrigation require higher investment in farming because they carry higher cost than traditional one. HVY seeds need more water and also chemical fertilisers and pesticides to produce best results. Higher use of chemicals cause environmental degradation also.
Ques 7. What was the major disadvantage associated with HYV seeds? Explain.
Ans. Biggest disadvantage associated with HYV seeds is bigger requirement of water and also chemical fertilisers and pesticides to produce best results. Higher yields are possible only from combination of HYV seeds, irrigation, chemical fertilisers, pesticides etc.
Chemical fertilisers and pesticides degrade our environment killing necessary bacterias in soil. Poor farmers could not afford HYV seeds due to increased requirement of fertilisers and machinery. New machinery replaced manual labour leading to unemployment and rural-urban migration.
Ques 8. What are the various farming and non-farming activities in village Palampur?
Ans. Farming activities : Farming is the main production activity in Palampur. About 75% of the people depend upon farming for their livelihood. They use methods of multiple farming and modern farming techniques for increase in their productivity. Well developed irrigational facilities and use of HYV seeds has improved in production levels of agriculture in Palampur. Non-farming activities : Non farming activities in Palampur includes dairy farming. Small scale manufacturing units, shop-keeping and transportation activities. Milk is transported to nearby and far of towns. Family members, without hired labours run small manufacturing units with simple techniques shop keepsrs buy various goods from wholesale markets in cities and sell them in villages. Road transport facilities includes rickshaws, tongs, jeeps, tractors, trucks and bullock carts.
Ques 9. What do the scientific reports indicate about the modern farming methods? Mention any three points.
Ans. Scientific reports indicate that the modern farming methods has overused the natural resource base.
• Green revolution, due to increased use of chemical fertilisers, has led to loss of soil fertility.
• Use of ground water with due help of tubewells for irrigation has reduced the level of ground water.
• Use of chemical fertilisers resulted in loss of soil fertility. Therefore, farmers are forced to use more and more chemical fertilisers to achieve the production levels which in turn raises the cost of production.
Ques 10. What are the sources of irrigation in Palampur?
Ans. Palampur holds a well developed system of irrigation. Due to introduction of electricity irrigation system transformed from Persian wheels to electric-run tubewells. Initially, the first few tubewells were installed by the government and then by mid of 1970s the entire cultivated area of 200 hectare was irrigated by privately installed tubewells.
Ques 11. Explain any three types of production activities in Palampur.
(i) Farming at Palampur : Farming is the main activity in village Palampur. Land area available for farming is fixed. Expansion in production is done due to methods of multiple cropping and use of modern farming methods.
(ii) Dairy farming : Dairy is a common activity in many families of Palampur. Many families have cows and buffalos. They feed them on jowar nad bajra. They sell milk either in the village or in nearby villages or town.
(iii) Small-scale manufacturing : People at Palampur are Angaged in same kind of small scale and cottage industries. Simple techniques of production are used on a small scale. Such small scale units are mostly carried at home or in fields with the help of family members. Sugarcan curshing, carpet Neaving and basket – making activities are carried under such production units.
Ques 12. State any three advantages of multiple cropping.
Ans. Advantages of multiple cropping are :
(a) Efficient use of land : Land is not left idle at any time of the year and therefore more efficiently used in the process of production.
(b) Increase of production : It increases the production on a piece of land during the year.
(c) Increase in income : Multiple cropping increases the agricultural income of the country as well as for the farmers.
Ques 13. What is Green Revolution? Which crop is benefitted the most due to Green Revolution?
Ans. Green Revolution is a revolution of using modern farming methods for higher yield and achieving the self sufficiency in the production of wheat and rice. It includes use of High Yielding Variety (HYV) seeds, irrigation, chemical fertilisers, pesticides etc for producing best results. Wheat is benefitted most due to Green Revolution.
Ques 14. What are the problems do form labourers face in terms of employment? Explain any three problems.
Ans. Problems faced by farm labourers are :
(a) Unadequate wages : Government has fixed the minimum wages as Rs 60 day but they donot usually get this amount of money.
(b) Availability of labour : Too much availability of labour forces the labourers to work on lower wages.
(c) Duration of employment : Labourers are sometimes employed on the daily wages and sometimes for the whole year. They do not have surety of job.
Ques 15. Explain any three modern farming methods of Agriculture.
(i) Use of HYV seeds : Use of High Yielding Variety seeds promises larger quantity of production of foodgrains.
(ii) Use of farm machinery : Use of machinery for irrigation, harvesting, threshing etc improves the quality of work as well as reduces time consumption.
(iii) Use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides :
Use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides ensure the farmers about the better upbringing of crops in quality and quantity.
Ques 16. Many factors are responsible for the poor economic condition of farm labourers like Dala and Ramkali. Can you explain a few of these factors?
Ans. The factors responsible for poor economic conditions of farm labourers like Dala and Ramkali are :
(i) Use of modern farming techniques : Use of modern farming techniques make it difficult for farm labourers to get work. Tractors are used foor ploughing, harvesters for harvesting, threshers for threshing and weedicide for removing weeds. This leaves very less or no work for farm labourers.
(ii) Poorly Paid : Due to heavy competition for work among the farm labourers, people agree to work for lower wages. The minimum wages for a farm labourer set by government is Rs 60 per day but they are generally paid only half of it. This forces them to take loan from local money lenders which put them in the vicious circle of poverty.