Q. 1. Which line of latitude passes through the centre of India ?
Ans. Tropic of Cancer 23½° N.
Q. 2. Name the two zones formed by Tropic of Cancer in India.
Ans. Tropical zone and Temperate zone.
Q. 3. What is the total length of coastline of India ?
Ans. 7516.6 km.
Q. 4. Which strait separates India from Sri Lanka ?
Ans. Palk Strait.
Q. 5. Which ocean route links, India with Europe ?
Ans. Suez Canal.
Q. 6. Which is the largest state of India (Area) ?
Q. 7. Which is the smallest state of India ?
Q. 8. Which is the smallest Union Territory in India ?
Q. 9. Which state of India is surrounded by boundaries of five states ?
Ans. Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka.
Q. 10. How many states are coastal states ?
Ans. Nine states are coastal states: Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Goa, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal.
Q. 11. How many islands are there in Andaman and Nicobar Islands ?
Q. 12. How many islands are there in Lakshadweep Islands ?
Q. 13. Name a group of Coral islands.
Q. 14. What is the total geographical area of India ?
Ans. 31,66,414 km2.
Q. 15. Between which latitudes and longitudes the Indian sub-continent lie ?
Ans. Between 8°N to 37°N latitude and 68°E to 97°E longitudes.
Q. 16. Name the State in India through which the Standard Meridian of India, as well as the Tropic of Cancer, pass covering the longest distance.
Ans. Madhya Pradesh.
Q. 17. What is the East-West and North-South extent of India ?
Ans. East-West extent = 2933 kms. North-South extent = 3214 kms.
Q. 18. Name two towns located on Tropic of Cancer in India.
Ans. Ahmedabad and Jabalpur.
Q. 19. What is a sub-continent ? Explain this with reference to countries lying south of the Himalayan Mountain System in South Central Asia.
Ans. Sub-continent : A sub-continent is a vast independent geographical unit. This land mass is distinctly separated from the main continent. The vastness in size produces a diversity in economic, social and cultural conditions. India is a vast country. It is often described as ‘Indian sub-continent’.
Countries : The Himalayan mountain system acts as a physical barrier separating the Indian subcontinent from the main land of Asia. India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan, Maldives, Sri Lanka combine together to form a sub-continent. The great mountain wall isolates these countries from Asia.
These are also called ‘SAARC’ countries.
Q. 20. Describe the Westernmost point and Easternmost point of India.
Ans. East-west extent. India has an east-west extent of about 3,000 kms. Its westernmost point lies on a creek in the salty marshes of the Rann of Kutchh.
The Easternmost point lies in the forested hills where the boundaries of Myanmar, China and India meet.
Q. 21. Where does India rank in area among the countries of the world ?
Ans. India ranks seventh in area among the countries of the world. India with an area of 3.2 million sq. kms. occupies 2.4% of the total world area. Russia, Canada, China, U.S.A., Brazil and Australia are larger in size than India. India almost equals Europe, Russia is seven times as large as India and the U.S.A. is thrice as big.
Q. 22. State the passes in N.W. part of India and explain their importance.
Ans. The only way people from outside could get into India were the Khyber Pass, near Safed Koh, and the Hindu Kush mountains and the Bolan pass between the Sulaiman and the Kirthar ranges in the north-west that separated the Indian realm from Afghanistan. It is through these routes that earlier central and west Asian tribes came to India, and later armies of Alexander, Afghan and Persians entered India.
Q. 23. Name the important passes across the lofty Himalayan mountains of the Indian subcontinent.
Ans. The Himalayas act as a physical barrier in the north. There are many passes to cross these lofty mountains such as :
(i) Shipkila pass (along Indo-Tibet Road).
(ii) Karakoram pass (Kashmir).
(iii) Nathula pass (Sikkim).
(iv) Jelep-la-pass (Sikkim).
Q. 24. Describe the land and water frontiers of India.
Ans. Land and Water Frontiers. India has a land border in the North, North-West and North-East. It is 15,200 kilometres in length. Indian Ocean forms the water frontiers of India. India has a long coastline of 7516 kilometres.
(i) The Northern Border. The great mountain wall in the North is a natural boundary. The high Himalayas form a natural bulwork between China, Tibet and India. These high mountains form the dividing line between India and China. It is known as McMohan line.
(ii) The Western Border. In the west, the border between Pakistan and India runs across Rajasthan (Thar desert) and Punjab Plains along Sutlej and Ravi rivers, J & K, Gujarat States.
(iii) The Eastern Border. In the East, a series of mountain ranges separate India from Burma (Myanmar). The Ganges delta forms the boundary between India and Bangladesh. Bangladesh is bounded by India on three sides and Bay of Bengal on the fourth Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram and West Bengal are States.
(iv) The Southern Border, Arabian Sea in the west. The Indian ocean in the south, and Bay of Bengal in the east form the water frontiers of India. A narrow stretch of water known as Palk strait and Gulf of Mannar separate Sri Lanka from India.
Q. 25. Name the five countries whose frontiers meet at the northern apex of India.
Ans. On the northern side of India, the boundaries of the following five countries meet together– China, Russia, Tajakistan, Afghanistan and Pakistan. These five countries meet at the apex of the north Indian triangle. This apex, pamir knot is called the roof of the world.
Q. 26. What is the McMohan Line ? What does it signify ?
Ans. McMohan line is the dividing line between India and China. It lies to the east of Bhutan. It extends from Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh. Beyond it, lies the area of Sinkiang and Tibet. It runs along the crest of the high Himalayas. To the north of this line, lies Tibet. This boundary line runs through a complex mountainous terrain. At its eastern point Myanmar, China and India meet each other. The crests along this form a natural boundary which acts as a watershed and is historically determined.
Q. 27. Elaborate the statement, “India is neither a pigmy nor a giant.”
Ans. India is a vast country covering a fairly large area of the globe. India ranks seventh in the world with an area of 3.2 million kms, about 2.4% of the total world area. Many countries are far larger in size than India. Russia is about seven times as large as India and the U.S.A. about thrice as big. Thus India is not a giant country like U.S.A. and Russia. But India is not a small country like Sri Lanka, Japan, etc. India is thirteen times as large as Britain and nine times as large as Japan. Thus it is true to say that India is neither a pigmy nor a giant.
Q. 28. Explain how far India can be said to occupy the most central position in the Indian Ocean.
Ans. (i) India lies at the head of the Indian Ocean.
The Indian Ocean extends between 0°E to 120°E longitudes, with Kanniyakumari located along 80°E longitude. Thus India occupies a central position in the Indian Ocean. The Indian Ocean is truely Indian.
(ii) The Deccan peninsula projects itself in the centre of Indian Ocean, in between Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal.
(iii) No other country has such a large coastline along the Indian Ocean. That is why it is named after the country of India.
(iv) India lies on the trade routes of Europe and the far east passing through Indian Ocean.
(v) India occupies a centrally located strategic position in the eastern hemisphere. India is by far the most dominant country surrounding the Indian Ocean.