Q.1. What do you mean by data?
Ans. Data is the plural form of the Latin word ‘datum’, which means a fact or information.
Q.2. What is the purpose of data collection?
Ans. The purpose of data collection is to collect evidence and arrive at an effective solution to an economic problem.
Q.3. What is primary data?
Ans. Primary data is the type of data which is collected by the investigator or enumerator from its origin.
Q.4. Define secondary data?
Ans. Secondary data is the data which has already been collected and new investigator only uses it for his investigation purpose.
Q.5. Who is an investigator?
Ans. An investigator is a person who plans and executes the investigation.
Q.6. Who is a respondent?
Ans. A respondent is the person who provides actual data.
Q.7. Who is an enumerator?
Ans. An enumerator is the one who does actual collection of data.
Q.8. Write one internal and one external source of data.
Ans. Annual report of a company is an internal source of data while data from NSSO is an external source of data.
Q.9. Name any two published sources of data.
Ans. World Bank and International Monetary Fund are the examples of published sources of data.
Q.10. Name any two unpublished sources of data.
Ans. Private institutions and individual researchers are the examples of unpublished sources of data.
Q.11. Write any two methods of data collection.
Ans. Methods of data collection are:
(i) Direct personal investigation
(ii) Indirect oral investigation
(iii) Investigation through local correspondents and resources
(iv) Through questionnaires
Q.12. What are the types of questionnaire method?
Ans. There are two types of questionnaire method:
(i) Questionnaire through enumeration
(ii) Questionnaire through mail
Q.13. List the types of questions that may be asked in the questionnaire.
Ans. The questionnaire may consist of closed-ended questions or open-ended questions.
Q.14. What are close-ended questions?
Ans. Closed-ended question can either be a two-way question or a multiple choice question. It is also known as structured question.
Q.15. List any two demerits of mailing questionnaire.
Ans. The demerits of mailing questionnaire are:
(i) Possibility of misinterpretation of questions
(ii) Produces low response rates
Q.16. When is it suggested to undertake indirect oral investigation?
Ans. Indirect oral investigation is suggested when the respondents are reluctant to answer certain questions in direct personal interviews.
Q.17. What may be the impact of the presence of the researcher in personal interview?
Ans. Presence of the researcher may obstruct respondents from saying what they really think.
Q.18. What are the benefits of conducting pilot survey?
Ans. The following are the benefits of conducting pilot survey:
(i) Helps in providing a prior idea about the survey
(ii) Helps to know the shortcomings and drawbacks of the questions
(iii) Helps in assessing the suitability of questions
Q.19. What is data? Explain the sources of data.
Ans. Data is the plural form of the Latin word ‘datum’, which means a fact or information. Sources of Data Data can be obtained from two sources:
(i) Internal Source of Data: When data are obtained from the reports of various institutes, it is called as internal source of data. For example, report published by any bank regarding its deposits and loan will be an internal source of data for that particular bank.
(ii) External Source of Data: When data is collected by any organisation from other organisation or source then the source of data is called as external source. For example, an economist uses the data published by the Indian government while evaluating an economic problem. Data collected from external source are of two types:
Q.20. Explain the questionnaire method of investigation.
Ans. In questionnaire method, investigator prepares a sequence of question keeping in mind the objective of the investigation and sends them to the respondent. Based on the questionnaire, information can be collected in two ways:
(i) through enumerator
(ii) through mail
Q.21. What is the difference between enumerator’s and mail questionnaire method?
Ans. In enumerator’s method, the questionnaire is sent through the enumerators to the respondents and enumerator collects the data. In mail questionnaire method, the questionnaire is sent to the respondents through the mail.
Q.22. Differentiate between schedule and questionnaire.
Ans. Series of questions prepared with reference to the investigation is called a questionnaire whereas questionnaire filled by enumerator himself by asking the respondents is called a schedule.
Q.23. What are the features of a good questionnaire?
Ans. Accuracy and originality of data collected through questionnaire depend upon the quality of questions in the questionnaire. A good questionnaire must have following features:
(i) Objective of investigation and instruction for filling the questionnaire should be clearly mentioned.
(ii) Number and nature of question should be minimum and from the field of investigation only.
(iii) All the questions should be in a proper order.
(iv) Question should not be of irritating nature, wrong type and hurtful to the feelings of special categories.
(v) Language of the questions should be easy, clear and direct so that everyone could understand it.
Q.24. Define pilot survey. List its uses.
Ans. Pilot survey is a preliminary piece of research conducted in order to test the effectiveness of the research methodology. It should be completed before the commencement of the final survey. The intention is to alert the surveyor regarding the difficulties that were not anticipated at the survey proposal stage. Pilot survey helps in assessing the:
(i) performance of the enumerators;
(ii) quality of questions;
(iii) suitability of questions;
(iv) cost involved in the final survey; and
(v) time involved in the final survey.