Q. 1. Why are the large integrated steel industries located close to the source of raw material? Give one reason.
Ans. Steel industries are located near the source of raw material because it saves transport cost at places where raw materials can be easily brought.
Q. 2. How does transport and communication play an important role in the development of industries?
Ans. Speedy and efficient transport facilities to carry raw materials to the factory and to move finished goods to the market are essential for the development of industries. Communication is also an important need for industries for the exchange and management of information.
Q. 3. What are the characteristics of modern large scale manufacturing?
Ans. The characteristics of modern large scale manufacturing
(ii) Technological innovations
(iii) Organisational structure and stratification
(iv) Uneven geographical distribution
Q. 4. How do secondary activities add value to natural resources? Explain with three examples.
Ans. Secondary activities add value to natural resources by transforming raw materials into valuable products. Examples :
(i) Cotton in the boll has limited use but after it is transformed into yarn, becomes more valuable and can be used for making clothes.
(ii) The same is true of most of the materials from the farm, forest, mine and the sea.
(iii) Secondary activities, therefore, are concerned with manufacturing, processing and construction (infrastructure) industries.
Q. 5. “Major concentrations of manufacturing industries have flourished in few places in the world”. Justify the statement with arguments
Ans. Major concentrations of manufacturing industries have flourished in less than 10 per cent of the world’s land area such as USA, Canada , UK , etc. Industries also flourish where the production cost are minimum. Some of the factors influencing the location of industries are as follows :
(i) Access to market : The existence of market for manufactured goods is the most important factor in the location of industries. The densely populated regions of South and Southeast Asia provide large markets. Some industries, such as aircraft manufacturing, have a global market.
(ii) Access to raw material : Industries based on cheap, bulky and weight-losing material (ores) are located close to the sources of raw material such as steel, sugar, and cement industries. Perishability is a vital factor for the industry to be located closer to the source of the raw material.
(iii) Access to source of energy : Industries which use more power are located close to the source of the energy supply such as the aluminium industry.
Q. 6. Define the term “technopolies”.
Ans. Highest industries which are regionally concentrated, self-sustained and highly specialized are called technopolies.
Q. 7. ”Agri-business farms are mechanised and large in size”. Explain the statement.
Ans. Agri-business farms: Since agri-business farms are commercial in nature that is why they are large.
Q. 8. How has the ‘New Ruhr’ landscape emerged?
Ans. New Ruhr landscape :
In Ruhr region the demand for coal declined and iron-ore was exhausted, industries used imported iron-ore leading to the shrinking of the region.
Q. 9. Mention any two problems of Ruhr Industrial Region.
Ans. Problems of Ruhr Industrial Region are :
(i) Industrial waste
(iii) Iron ore exhausted.
Q. 10. What is household industry?
Ans. It is the smallest manufacturing unit. The craftsmen use local raw materials and simple hand tools to produce everyday goods in their homes with the help of their family members or part time labourers.
Q. 11. Which is the leading steel producing region of Germany?
Ans. Ruhr Region.
Q. 12. Classify the industries on the basis of raw materials.
Ans. On the basis of the raw materials used, the industries are classified as :
(e) animal -based.
Q. 13. What are the three sub-sectors of cotton textile industry?
Ans. The three sub-sectors are :
Q. 14. Discuss any three characteristics of agro-based industries in the world?
Ans. Characteristics of agro-based industries :
(i) It involves the processing of raw materials from the field and farm into finished products.
(ii) Major agro-processing industries are food processing, sugar, pickles, fruit juice, beverages, spices, and oils.
(iii) Textiles (cotton, jute, silk) rubber etc. are agro-based industries.
Q. 15. Explain the concept of ‘High Technology Industry’ with examples.
Write a short note on High-Tech Industry.
Ans. The term high-tech refers to technology that is at the cutting edge: the most advanced technology.
(i) It is the latest generation of manufacturing activities. Professional (white collar) workers make up a large share of the total workforce. These highly skilled specialists greatly outnumber the actual production(blue collar) workers.
(ii) This term is often used in reference to microelectronic, rather than other technologies. The Silicon Valley near San Francisco and Silicon Forest near Seattle are examples of Technopolies.
Q. 16. How are technological innovations an important aspect of modern manufacturing industries? Explain three aspects in this regards.
Ans. Technological Innovations :
(i) Technological innovations through research and development strategy are an important aspect of modern manufacturing for quality control, eliminating waste, inefficiency and combating pollution. A complex machine technology.
(ii) Extreme specialization and division of labour for producing goods with less effort and low costs.
(iii) Vast capital.
(iv) Large organisation.
(v) Executive bureaucracy.
Q. 17. What are the traditional large scale industrial regions? Give any two characteristics of them.
Ans. Traditional large scale industries are based on heavy industries. These are often located near coal fields and engaged in metal smelting, heavy engineering, chemical manufacturing and textile production. Some characteristics of them are :
(i) High proportion of employment.
(ii) Unattractive environment.
Q. 18. Explain the meaning of ‘technopolies’. Give two examples of technopolies.
Give the meaning of high-tech industry. State any two characteristics of this industry.
Ans. High-tech industries which are regionally concentrated, self-sustained and highly specialised are called technopolies. Technopolies are neatly spaced, low, modern, dispersed, office-plant lab buildings rather than massive assembly structures and factories. Planned business parks for high-tech start ups are also a part of technopolies. The Silicon Valley near San Francisco and Silicon Forest near Seattle are examples of technopolies.
Q. 19. Explain any three characteristics of modern large scale manufacturing in the world.
Ans. (i) Mechanization
(ii) Specialization of different skills
(iii) Innovation in technology
(iv) Organisational structure and stratification
(v) Uneven geographic distribution.
Q. 20. Explain any three characteristics of ‘Foot Loose Industries’
Write a short note on foot loose industries.
Ans. (i) Foot loose industries can be located in a wide variety of places.
(ii) They are not dependent on any specific raw material, weight loosing or otherwise.
(iii) They largely depend on component parts which can be obtained from anywhere.
(iv) They produce in small quantity.
(v) They also employ small labour force.
(vi) These are generally non-polluting industries.
(vii) The important factor in their location is accessibility by road network.
Detailed Answer :
(i) Foot loose industries can be located in a wide variety of places. These industries do not have strong location preference because the resources, production skills and consumers on which it depends can be found in numerous places.
(ii) They produce in small quantity. These industries usually requires a very small production space and are usually less polluting but require highly skilled workers.
(iii) The important factor in their location is accessibility by road network. These products are having very high value addition and smaller in size and so transportation cost is only a small fraction of total cost.
Q. 21. Explain any three characteristics of organisational structure and stratification of modern large-scale manufacturing industry.
Ans. The characteristics of organisational structure and stratification of modern large-scale manufacturing industry are :
(i) Extreme specialization is required
(ii) Huge capital requirement
(iii) More manpower at low cost.
Q. 22. Explain the process of mechanization in modern large-scale manufacturing industry in three points.
Ans. Mechanization is the process of doing work with machinery. Mechanization is comparatively a new concept in modern large-scale manufacturing industry. This process includes :
(i) Replacement of manual implements of labour in sectors of material production.
(ii) Mechanization of industry promotes rational and economical use of raw and processed materials and power, reduction of prime cost and improvement of product quality.
(iii) In addition to improvement and replacement of equipment and production processes, mechanization of production is closely linked to a rise in the level of worker’s skills and production organisation and to the use of methods of scientific organisation of labour.
(iv) When we compare the costs of using an internal combustion engine to a worker to perform the same task, we realise that the engine can perform the given task at a much faster rate and comparative cost.
Q. 23. Why has technological innovation become essential in modern manufacturing industry? Explain any three points.
Ans. Technological innovations through research and development strategy are an important aspect of modern manufacturing for quality control, eliminating waste and combating pollution.
(i) Quality control technology entails the testing, assembling and improvement of products, so that they are safe for the general public to use. Quality control technologies keep consumers safe from flawed and potentially dangerous products.
(ii) Technology has also helped in the development of new techniques that have made recycling and reuse of materials possible. Thus it limits wastage and inefficiency, e.g., Iron scraps instead of being wasted is being reused in mini steel plants for making various products.
(iii) Technological innovation has also popularised the use of alternative sources of energy like solar energy, tidal energy, etc., which are inexhaustible resources and do not result in pollution.
Q. 24. Differentiate between small scale manufacturing and large scale manufacturing.
Ans. Points of distinction between small scale manufacturing and large scale manufacturing :
(i) Small scale industries use local raw material, whereas large scale industries use variety of raw materials brought from far and near.
(ii) Small scale industries use simple power driven machines, whereas large scale industries use advanced technology and work on assembly line production.
(iii) Small scale industries use skilled and semi-skilled labour, whereas large scale industries use skilled labour.
(iv) Small scale industries provide large scale employment and raise local purchasing power, whereas large scale industries provide employment with mass production and huge capital.
(v) Any other relevant point.
Q. 25. Describe any three characteristics of ‘Household Industries’.
Ans. Characteristics of household industries are :
(i) It is the smallest manufacturing unit.
(ii) They use simple hand tools to produce goods.
(iii) Final products are locally marketed.