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Short Q & A :
Q 1: Why India is called a secular state?
Ans : People of different religions and faiths have freedom to practice and follow their religion.
Q 2: Where Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar does derives his name "Ambedkar"?
Ans : He was the son of Ramji Maloji Sakpal and Bhimabai Murbadkar. Bhimrao's native village name was "Ambavade" in Ratnagiri District so he changed his name from "Sakpal" to "Ambedkar" with the recommendation and faith of Mahadev Ambedkar, his teacher who believed in him.
Q 3: State the main reason behind Muslim girls not attending school?
Ans : Reasons for Muslim girls not attending the schools are:- Early marriages Poverty
Q 4: Define constitution.
Ans : Constitution is set of rules for government — often in the form of a written document — that establishes principles of an autonomous political entity. It defines the fundamental political principles, and establishes the structure, procedures, powers and duties, of a government.
Q 5: List all the things that that make people prejudice of others?
Ans : People’s religious beliefs, their colour, accent and dress makes people prejudice of others.
Q 6: Why is secularism an important principle in a democracy?
Ans : A democracy works best in an environment of tolerance and peace. Democracy flourishes when there is respect for the opinions of others and where there is freedom to practice one’s own beliefs.
For democracy to prosper, we have to keep an open mind to learn what is worthwhile from others and create a mindset that highlights the commonness of our beliefs rather than differences. A democracy based on such principles of respect, tolerance will be vibrant and encourage citizens to integrate rather than create frictions. Hence Secularism is an important principle in a democracy.
Q 7: What happens when we act on our prejudices and stereotypes?
Ans : Stereotypes often lead to discrimination. Discrimination is when someone is treated worse than other people because of their: Gender, race, disability, colour, nationality, religion and age. When we judge people and groups based on our prejudices and stereotypes, then we treat them differently, which leads to discrimination.
Q 8: Define the term ‘Scheduled Caste’.
Ans : Scheduled Caste is a social categorization that characterizes the lowest step of the caste hierarchy, as well as legal categorization that relates to the constitutionally designed instrument for identifying certain caste groups for the purpose of various constitutional entitlements.
Q 9: What do you mean by “Mahars”?
Ans : Mahars were poor people who owned no land. They lived in the outskirts of the village and were not allowed to enter into the village. Mahars were the largest untouchable caste in Maharashtra, comprising 9 percent of that area's population.
Ambedkar, the first individual from a traditionally untouchable caste to receive a university education, encouraged Mahars to leave Hinduism in protest of their caste status.
Q 10: Write short notes on 'Dalits'.
Ans : Dalits are formerly known as untouchable - a person outside of the four Varnas, and considered below of all and polluting. Dalits include people as leather-workers, scavengers, tanners, flyers, cobblers, agricultural labourers, municipal cleaners and drum beaters. They are also known as broken people.
Q 11: What do you mean by equality?
Ans : Equality means all men are equally protected by law, no one is above law. All are free to follow their religion, language, and festivals and to express themselves freely. Everyone has freedom to do work of their own choice. The State will not differentiate any individual on the basis of religion, caste, language, gender or birth
Q 12: A common stereotype about Muslims is that they are not interested in educating girls and therefore do not send girls to school. Do you agree?
Ans : This stereotype thinking regarding Muslims not interested in educating girls and therefore do not send girls to school is wrong. The main reason for the Muslim girls not attending the schools is poverty. Wherever efforts have been made to reach education to the poor, there the Muslim community has shown an interest in sending their girls to school for example Kerala
Q 13: Define Diversity.
Ans : Diversity means “variety” and “being different”. It is a product of different geography, culture and history. Diversity is more than just tolerating the differences. It is respecting and understanding the varying differences among individuals in society.
Q 14: Define constitution.
Ans : Constitution is set of rules for government — often in the form of a written document — that establishes principles of an autonomous political entity. It defines the fundamental political principles, and establishes the structures, procedures, powers and duties, of a government.
Q 15: What is the important element of our unity?
Ans : The important element of our unity is that we all live together peacefully and respect one another in all the spheres of life.
Q 16: Mention any two fundamental duties of the Indian citizens?
Ans : The two fundamental duties of the Indian citizens are:
a. to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.
b. to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.
Q 17: How the life in a Indian village is different from city life?
Ans : Life in the village is economical as people share common facilities such as temples, schools, ponds and grazing grounds. Life in the city is expensive as people have to spent more money on rent and transport.
Q 18: What are the discrimination faced by the Dalit in India even today?
Ans : Dalits are not permitted to drink water from the public wells, attend the temple prayers, wear shoes in front of an upper caste or drink from the same cups in the tea stall. They have to face various sorts of discrimination and atrocities from the upper caste.
Q 19: Explain the importance of Directive Principles of State policy?
Ans : Directive principles of state policies are very important because they give directions to the governments at the Centre as well as State to attain the welfare of the people. Their aim is to secure economic and social justice to all the people. It also aims to promote international peace and security.
Q 20: How did prejudice and stereotypes leads to discrimination?
Ans : When we evaluate people on the basis of prejudices and stereotypes, we are engaging in discrimination. Women and minorities are mistreated by discrimination in employment, education and social services. Sometimes, they are excluded from high rank positions in the society.
Q 21: What does the Constitution say with regard to equality?
Ans : In our constitution, right to equality is the most important right guaranteed to the citizens of India. It means that all citizens have equal privileges and opportunities. It looks after the citizens against any discrimination by the State on the basis of religion, caste, race, sex or place of birth. The citizens shall be equally protected by the laws of the country. It also says that the practice of untouchability is an offense.
Q 22: Is there any national commission that protects the minorities from discrimination? Mention the important function of the commission?
Ans : Yes, the National Human Rights Commission of India is one such Commission that works for the protection of human rights. The commission enquiries into a petition presented to it by a victim or any person on his behalf into complaint of violation of human rights or negligence in the prevention of such violation by a public servant.
Q 23: Explain how caste inequalities are continuing in India?
Ans : Caste division is special in India. It has not completely disappeared from India. Despite constitutional prohibition, untouchability is still continuing in India. The lower caste people are still backward in education as well as in their economic condition.
In modern India, like in pre-independence the poor are mostly the low castes and the rich are the higher castes. All these show that inequalities are still continuing inspite of the vast development that India has achieved.
Q 24: What discrimination does Mahatma Gandhi face during his stay in South Africa?
Ans : The famous leader who faced discrimination was the father of India, Mahatma Gandhi. He faced discrimination when he was in South Africa. He faced discrimination directed at black South African and Indians. One day in the court at Durban, he was asked to remove his turban by the magistrate. Another incident was that he was thrown off a train after his refusal to move from the first class to a third class.
Long Q & A :
Q 1: Explain briefly the caste system in India.
India has a hierarchical caste system in the society. The Indian term for caste is jati, which generally designates a group varying in size from a handful to many thousands. There are thousands of such jatis, and each has its distinctive rules and customs. Varna (meaning, "color") refers to the ancient and somewhat ideal fourfold division of the Hindu society:
The Caste System was born and maintained by the Brahmins, the priestly class, they are the ones who get more advantage from it!
Q 2: Explain the “right against exploitation”.
Ans : Our constitution prohibits beggar and other forms of forced labour. It also prohibits selling and buying of human being. According to this, human trafficking(buying & selling) is a criminal offence. No one has the right to force another individual to work for him without adequate wages or compensation.
Q 3: How the stereotype thinking that “Girls are burden on their parents”, affects the life of a daughter?
Ans : The stereotype thinking that girls are a burden on their parents affects the life of a daughter right from their birth to their marriage. They are treated as temporary member by their family members. They are not treated equally with boys. They are not given adequate opportunity to go to school or make progress. Even in the ancestral property, no rights are reserved for them.
Q 4: What are the basic features of the Indian Constitution?
Ans : The basic features of Indian constitution are sovereign democratic republic, justice, liberty, equality and fraternity. In the constitution of India, Justice means justice for all.
Social justice means, justice for the whole society, no discrimination on the basis of caste or colour. Economic justice implies equal distribution of wealth and political justice means equal participation of every individual to participate in the government.
Liberty: Indian citizens are given freedom of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship.
Equality: Liberty without equality is meaningless. Every citizen of India is treated equally before law and is ensured equal protection.
Fraternity: It means brotherhood among the people of India
Q 5: What do the terms ‘Difference and ‘Prejudice mean to you? What is stereotyping? How does it create discrimination?
Ans : Difference can be understood as difference among people like different types of food, clothes, languages, culture and religions. All these are influenced by geographical and historical factors. Prejudice means to judge others negatively or as inferior on the basis of skin colour, accent, culture or clothes.
When we fix an individual or group into a particular framework, we create a stereotype. It is a popular belief about a specific social group based on assumptions and not facts. Stereotyping creates inequality and discrimination. This further leads to rejection from the community. For example, Dalits are treated as untouchables and inferior.