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Short and Long Question Answers - Tracing Changes through Thousands of Years - Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 7 - Class 7

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Short and Long Question Answers - Tracing Changes through Thousands of Years - Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 7 - Class 7

Short Answer Type Questions

Q.1. What were the major developments in the religious traditions between 700 and 1750?
Ans. 

The period between 700 and 1750 witnessed major developments in religious traditions.

  •  During this period, some important changes occurred in Hinduism. Worship of new deities and construction of temples by Kings began. The importance of Brahmana and priests increased. They became dominant groups in society.
  • Another major development was the emergence of the idea of Bhakti in which devotees did not require the aid of priests or elaborate rituals to reach their personal deity.

Short and Long Question Answers - Tracing Changes through Thousands of Years - Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 7 - Class 7

  • During this period, new religions also appeared in the subcontinent. Teachings of the Holy Quran were brought to India in the 7th century by merchants and migrants.


Q.2. Who were the Rajputs?
Ans.
(i) The name Rajput is derived from "Rajaputra", the son of a ruler.
(ii) Between the eighth and fourteenth centuries, a body of warriors who were Kshatriya by caste was termed as Rajputs.
(iii) The Rajputs were not just rulers and chieftains, but also soldiers and commanders who served in the armies of different monarchs all over the subcontinent. This group of people became important in this period.
(iv) Poets and bards of these Rajput rulers ascribed some great qualities, such as great valour and immense sense of loyalty, to these rulers.


Q.3. In the Medieval period, for whom was the term foreigner used?
Ans. 

  • In the medieval period, a "foreigner" was any stranger who was not a part of a particular society or culture
  • Therefore, a forest-dweller might have been regarded as a "foreigner", by a city-dweller. 
  • But two peasants living in the same village were not foreigners to each other, even though they may have had different religious or caste backgrounds.


Q.4. What were 'jatis'? How were the affairs of jatis regulated?
Ans. 

  • As society became more differentiated, people were grouped into jatis or sub-castes. They were ranked on the basis of their backgrounds and occupations. 
  • The status of same jati could vary from area to area. 
  • Jatis framed their own rules and regulations to administer the behaviour of their members. 
  • An assembly of elders, described in some areas as the jati panchayat, enforced these regulations. 
  • Besides they had to follow rules of their village. Several villages were governed by a chieftain.

Hindu Caste SystemHindu Caste System


Q.5. Why did Brahmanas become important in Hindu society in the early 8th century?
Ans. Brahmanas became important during this period due to the following reasons:
(i) They had knowledge of Sanskrit texts, which made them respectable in the society.
(ii) They had support of their patrons, who were new rulers and searching for prestige.

Q.6. Describe the major developments in religion and the religious traditions?
Ans. 

  • During this period many changes were witnessed in religion. 
  • Peoples belief in the divine was sometimes personal and at other times collective. 
  • Other changes occurred in what we call 'Hinduism' today, as Brahmans earned a lot of respect in society. 
  • There was an emergence of the idea of "Bhakti" of a loving, personal deity that devotees could reach without the aid of priests or elaborate rituals.

Q.7. Compare the value of paper in the thirteenth and fourteenth century?
Ans. 

  • In the thirteenth century if a scholar wanted to copy a book, but he did not have enough paper, he washed the writing of a manuscript, he did not want and dried the paper and used it again. 
  • In the fourteenth century, there was a shortage of paper and the condition was that, if you bought some food from the market you might be lucky if the shopkeeper wrapped it for you in some paper.

Q.8. Describe the difficulties faced by historians in using manuscripts?
Ans. There was no printing press in those days so the writers copied manuscripts by hands. As a result of coping there occurred small but significant differences in the manuscripts. Small changes were introduced- a word here, a sentence there. Slowly and steadily as copying over centuries grew so the original writing was lost somewhere. Reading these manuscripts over the centuries proved to be difficult and the historians had to face difficulties.

Q.9. Describe the different languages used in this period?
Ans. 
In this period, various languages were used, in every region. Sindhi, Lahori, Kashmiri, Dvarsamudri, Telangani, Gujari, Awadhi and Hindawi.

Q.10. State the difference between Shia and Sunni.
Ans. 
The Shia Muslims went by the Prophet's son-in-law Ali, and Sunni Muslims accepted the authority of the early leaders or the "Khalifas".

Short and Long Question Answers - Tracing Changes through Thousands of Years - Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 7 - Class 7


Q.11. Who coined the term "Hindustan" in the thirteenth century and which areas were covered under it?
Ans. 

  • The term ‘Hindustan’ was used in the thirteenth century by Minhaj-i-Siraj, a chronicler who wrote in Persian. 

Short and Long Question Answers - Tracing Changes through Thousands of Years - Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 7 - Class 7

  • The areas that he used this term for were Punjab, Haryana, and the lands between Ganga and Yamuna. 
  • He used the term in political terms for the land that came under the Delhi Sultan.

Q.12. What are sources? How are sources helpful to historians?
Ans. 

  • Sources are important to trace the ancient records. 
  • Historians use these sources to learn about the past depending upon the period of their study and the nature of their investigation. 
  • The different sources of Historical studies are:
    Archaeological - its sources are Monuments, temples, coins, tombs, ornaments and paintings.

ArchaeologicalArchaeological

Literary - its sources are Chronicles, autobiographies, farmans, religious books, inscriptions.

LiteraryLiterary


Q.13. Why was there a dramatic increase in the variety of textual records between 700 to 1750 CE?
Ans. 

  • During this period, paper became cheaper and widely available. This resulted in a dramatic increase in the variety of textual records between 700 to 1750 CE. 
  • People started using paper to write holy texts, chronicles of rulers, letters and teachings of saints, petitions and judicial records and for registers of accounts and taxes.

Q.14. How has been the meaning of Hindustan changing?
Ans. 

Short and Long Question Answers - Tracing Changes through Thousands of Years - Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 7 - Class 7

Q.15. Mention the vegetables, beverages and technologies that came to the Indian subcontinent from other continents?
Ans. 

Vegetables such as corn, chillies, potatoes, and beverages such as tea and coffee and new technologies like Persian wheel for irrigation and spinning wheel in the textile industry and firearms to be used in battle came to the subcontinent from other continents.

Q.16. Why the British Historians periodization of Indian history is not the correct one?
Ans. 

  • The British Historians periodized Indian history as Hindu India, Muslim India and British India. 
  • This periodization focused only on the religions of the ruler and rejected the rich diversity of the Indian subcontinent. 
  • It did not serve the very purpose of the periodization. That is to say, to capture the characteristics of each period in history. 
  • Apart from this, studying history from a religious perspective is not a rational and scientific way. 
  • That is why Indian historians have shifted the periodization to non-religious periodization- Ancient, Medieval and Modern periods.

Q.17. What do you understand by the Discontinuity in historical Sources?
Ans.

  • Historians use coins, inscriptions, and manuscripts for reconstructing the history of the ancient period. 

Short and Long Question Answers - Tracing Changes through Thousands of Years - Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 7 - Class 7

  • Very few original manuscripts are available and manuscripts that are available are the reproduction of scribes and sometimes the information provided in these sources are not reliable. 

Short and Long Question Answers - Tracing Changes through Thousands of Years - Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 7 - Class 7

  • As scribe fails to understand the information given in the Historical text which led to the misinterpretation of facts. 
  • And moreover, there is a lack of continuity as text do not follow a timeline. 
  • In the Medieval period use of paper to issue Royal orders began instead of inscriptions. 
  • As the paper has less durability than inscription caused the discontinuity in the availability of historical sources.

Long Answer Type Questions

Q.1. Describe the social changes that took place in the years between 700 and 1750 AD
Ans. 

  • The social changes that took place in the ten years led to the society becoming more complex. 
  • New technology like persian wheel in irrigation, the spinning wheel in weaving and the firearms in combat were developed. 

Persian WheelPersian Wheel

  • New foods and beverages like potatoes, corn, chillies, tea and coffee were introduced. 
  • These innovations were brought by travellers who came and settled in new lands. 
  • People were grouped into jatis, or sub-caste on the basis of their backgrounds and their occupations. 
  • The Rajputs became most powerful and a chivalric code of conduct was developed. Marathas, Sikhs, Jats , Ahoms and Kayasthas also became important.

Q.2. Why was the information from the manuscripts difficult to use during the thousand years?
Ans. 

  • During this period, there was no printing press so the manuscripts were copied by the scribes by hand. 

Short and Long Question Answers - Tracing Changes through Thousands of Years - Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 7 - Class 7

  • The copying of the manuscripts relied upon the accuracy of the scribes. 
  • While copying the manuscripts, the scribes made unintentional errors. 
  • At times, scribes would also correct the spelling, grammar and alter what they believed to be mistakes inherent in the text. 
  • They amended apparent historical and geographical errors. 
  • These small differences grew over centuries of copying until manuscripts of the same text became substantially different from one another. 
  • As a result, historians find it difficult to use the information from the manuscript and have to read different manuscript versions of the same text to guess what the author had originally written.

Q.3. What changes did technology bring about in the lives of people from 700 CE to 1750 CE?
Ans. 

  • Technology revolutionized the lives of people within a span of thousand years. 
  • People started travelling long distances in search of opportunities. 
  • New food crops arrived in the Indian sub-continent due to new technological inventions in agriculture. 
  • There were Persian wheels used in irrigation and spinning wheel in weaving.

Short and Long Question Answers - Tracing Changes through Thousands of Years - Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 7 - Class 7

  • Gradually forests were cleared and agriculture extended through modern mechanical tools. 
  • Many forest dwellers began to migrate and started tilling land, acquiring the title of 'peasants'. 
  • These peasants were influenced by the regional market dynamics and priests. 
  • As a result, society became more differentiated and people were grouped into caste and sub-castes depending upon their occupation and background.
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