Software Testing Basics Interview Questions (Part - 1) Quant Notes | EduRev

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Quant : Software Testing Basics Interview Questions (Part - 1) Quant Notes | EduRev

The document Software Testing Basics Interview Questions (Part - 1) Quant Notes | EduRev is a part of the Quant Course Placement Papers - Technical & HR Questions.
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1. Can you explain the PDCA cycle and where testing fits in?

Software testing is an important part of the software development process. In normal software development there are four important steps, also referred to, in short, as the PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act) cycle.

Software Testing Basics Interview Questions (Part - 1) Quant Notes | EduRev

Let's review the four steps in detail.
So developers and other stakeholders of the project do the "planning and building," while testers do the check part of the cycle. Therefore, software testing is done in check part of the PDCA cyle.

  1. Plan: Define the goal and the plan for achieving that goal.
  2. Do/Execute: Depending on the plan strategy decided during the plan stage we do execution accordingly in this phase.
  3. Check: Check/Test to ensure that we are moving according to plan and are getting the desired results.
  4. Act: During the check cycle, if any issues are there, then we take appropriate action accordingly and revise our plan again.


2. What is the difference between white box, black box, and gray box testing?

Black box testing is a testing strategy based solely on requirements and specifications. Black box testing requires no knowledge of internal paths, structures, or implementation of the software being tested.

White box testing is a testing strategy based on internal paths, code structures, and implementation of the software being tested. White box testing generally requires detailed programming skills.

There is one more type of testing called gray box testing. In this we look into the "box" being tested just long enough to understand how it has been implemented. Then we close up the box and use our knowledge to choose more effective black box tests.

Software Testing Basics Interview Questions (Part - 1) Quant Notes | EduRev

The above figure shows how both types of testers view an accounting application during testing. Black box testers view the basic accounting application. While during white box testing the tester knows the internal structure of the application. In most scenarios white box testing is done by developers as they know the internals of the application. In black box testing we check the overall functionality of the application while in white box testing we do code reviews, view the architecture, remove bad code practices, and do component level testing.


3. Can you explain usability testing?

Usability testing is a testing methodology where the end customer is asked to use the software to see if the product is easy to use, to see the customer's perception and task time. The best way to finalize the customer point of view for usability is by using prototype or mock-up software during the initial stages. By giving the customer the prototype before the development start-up we confirm that we are not missing anything from the user point of view.

Software Testing Basics Interview Questions (Part - 1) Quant Notes | EduRev


4. What are the categories of defects?

There are three main categories of defects:

Software Testing Basics Interview Questions (Part - 1) Quant Notes | EduRev

  1. Wrong: The requirements have been implemented incorrectly. This defect is a variance from the given specification.
  2. Missing: There was a requirement given by the customer and it was not done. This is a variance from the specifications, an indication that a specification was not implemented, or a requirement of the customer was not noted properly.
  3. Extra: A requirement incorporated into the product that was not given by the end customer. This is always a variance from the specification, but may be an attribute desired by the user of the product. However, it is considered a defect because it's a variance from the existing requirements.


5. How do you define a testing policy?

The following are the important steps used to define a testing policy in general. But it can change according to your organization. Let's discuss in detail the steps of implementing a testing policy in an organization.

Software Testing Basics Interview Questions (Part - 1) Quant Notes | EduRev
 

 

  • Definition: The first step any organization needs to do is define one unique definition for testing within the organization so that everyone is of the same mindset.
  • How to achieve: How are we going to achieve our objective? Is there going to be a testing committee, will there be compulsory test plans which need to be executed, etc?.
  • Evaluate: After testing is implemented in a project how do we evaluate it? Are we going to derive metrics of defects per phase, per programmer, etc. Finally, it's important to let everyone know how testing has added value to the project?.
  • Standards: Finally, what are the standards we want to achieve by testing? For instance, we can say that more than 20 defects per KLOC will be considered below standard and code review should be done for it.


6. On what basis is the acceptance plan prepared?

In any project the acceptance document is normally prepared using the following inputs. This can vary from company to company and from project to project.

  1. Requirement document: This document specifies what exactly is needed in the project from the customers perspective.
  2. Input from customer: This can be discussions, informal talks, emails, etc.
  3. Project plan: The project plan prepared by the project manager also serves as good input to finalize your acceptance test.

Software Testing Basics Interview Questions (Part - 1) Quant Notes | EduRev
The following diagram shows the most common inputs used to prepare acceptance test plans.
 

7. What is configuration management?

Configuration management is the detailed recording and updating of information for hardware and software components. When we say components we not only mean source code. It can be tracking of changes for software documents such as requirement, design, test cases, etc.

When changes are done in adhoc and in an uncontrolled manner chaotic situations can arise and more defects injected. So whenever changes are done it should be done in a controlled fashion and with proper versioning. At any moment of time we should be able to revert back to the old version. The main intention of configuration management is to track our changes if we have issues with the current system. Configuration management is done using baselines.


8. How does a coverage tool work?

While doing testing on the actual product, the code coverage testing tool is run simultaneously. While the testing is going on, the code coverage tool monitors the executed statements of the source code. When the final testing is completed we get a complete report of the pending statements and also get the coverage percentage.

Software Testing Basics Interview Questions (Part - 1) Quant Notes | EduRev


9. Which is the best testing model?

In real projects, tailored models are proven to be the best, because they share features from The Waterfall, Iterative, Evolutionary models, etc., and can fit into real life time projects. Tailored models are most productive and beneficial for many organizations. If it's a pure testing project, then the V model is the best.


10. What is the difference between a defect and a failure?

When a defect reaches the end customer it is called a failure and if the defect is detected internally and resolved it's called a defect.

Software Testing Basics Interview Questions (Part - 1) Quant Notes | EduRev


11. Should testing be done only after the build and execution phases are complete?

In traditional testing methodology testing is always done after the build and execution phases. 

But that's a wrong way of thinking because the earlier we catch a defect, the more cost effective it is. For instance, fixing a defect in maintenance is ten times more costly than fixing it during execution.

In the requirement phase we can verify if the requirements are met according to the customer needs. During design we can check whether the design document covers all the requirements. In this stage we can also generate rough functional data. We can also review the design document from the architecture and the correctness perspectives. In the build and execution phase we can execute unit test cases and generate structural and functional data. And finally comes the testing phase done in the traditional way. i.e., run the system test cases and see if the system works according to the requirements. During installation we need to see if the system is compatible with the software. Finally, during the maintenance phase when any fixes are made we can retest the fixes and follow the regression testing.

Therefore, Testing should occur in conjunction with each phase of the software development.


12. Are there more defects in the design phase or in the coding phase?

The design phase is more error prone than the execution phase. One of the most frequent defects which occur during design is that the product does not cover the complete requirements of the customer. Second is wrong or bad architecture and technical decisions make the next phase, execution, more prone to defects. Because the design phase drives the execution phase it's the most critical phase to test. The testing of the design phase can be done by good review. On average, 60% of defects occur during design and 40% during the execution phase.

Software Testing Basics Interview Questions (Part - 1) Quant Notes | EduRev


13. What group of teams can do software testing?

When it comes to testing everyone in the world can be involved right from the developer to the project manager to the customer. But below are different types of team groups which can be present in a project.

  • Isolated test team
  • Outsource - we can hire external testing resources and do testing for our project.
  • Inside test team
  • Developers as testers
  • QA/QC team.


14. What impact ratings have you used in your projects?

Normally, the impact ratings for defects are classified into three types:

Software Testing Basics Interview Questions (Part - 1) Quant Notes | EduRev
 

  • Minor: Very low impact but does not affect operations on a large scale.
  • Major: Affects operations on a very large scale.
  • Critical: Brings the system to a halt and stops the show.


15. Does an increase in testing always improve the project?

No an increase in testing does not always mean improvement of the product, company, or project. In real test scenarios only 20% of test plans are critical from a business angle. Running those critical test plans will assure that the testing is properly done. The following graph explains the impact of under testing and over testing. If you under test a system the number of defects will increase, but if you over test a system your cost of testing will increase. Even if your defects come down your cost of testing has gone up.


16. What's the relationship between environment reality and test phases?

Environment reality becomes more important as test phases start moving ahead. For instance, during unit testing you need the environment to be partly real, but at the acceptance phase you should have a 100% real environment, or we can say it should be the actual real environment. The following graph shows how with every phase the environment reality should also increase and finally during acceptance it should be 100% real.

Software Testing Basics Interview Questions (Part - 1) Quant Notes | EduRev
 

  • Minor: Very low impact but does not affect operations on a large scale.
  • Major: Affects operations on a very large scale.
  • Critical: Brings the system to a halt and stops the show.


17. Does an increase in testing always improve the project?

No an increase in testing does not always mean improvement of the product, company, or project. In real test scenarios only 20% of test plans are critical from a business angle. Running those critical test plans will assure that the testing is properly done. The following graph explains the impact of under testing and over testing. If you under test a system the number of defects will increase, but if you over test a system your cost of testing will increase. Even if your defects come down your cost of testing has gone up.


18. What's the relationship between environment reality and test phases?

Environment reality becomes more important as test phases start moving ahead. For instance, during unit testing you need the environment to be partly real, but at the acceptance phase you should have a 100% real environment, or we can say it should be the actual real environment. The following graph shows how with every phase the environment reality should also increase and finally during acceptance it should be 100% real.

Software Testing Basics Interview Questions (Part - 1) Quant Notes | EduRev
 

  • Central/Project test plan: This is the main test plan which outlines the complete test strategy of the software project. This document should be prepared before the start of the project and is used until the end of the software development lifecycle.
  • Acceptance test plan: This test plan is normally prepared with the end customer. This document commences during the requirement phase and is completed at final delivery.
  • System test plan: This test plan starts during the design phase and proceeds until the end of the project.
  • Integration and unit test plan: Both of these test plans start during the execution phase and continue until the final delivery.

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