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Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)

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Riveting

The size of the rivet is the diameter of the shank.

  • Gross dia of rivet or dia of hole d' = d + 1.5 mm for d ≤ 25 mm
    and d' = d + 2.0 mm for d ≥ 25 mm
    where d = Nominal dia of rivet
    d' = Gross dia of rivet or dia of hole…
  • Unwin's formula Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE) 
    where, dmm = dia of rivet in mm
    tmm = thickness of the plate in mm.

Bolted Joints

Bolts may be used in place of rivets for structure not subjected to vibrations. The following types of bolts are used in structures:

Black bolts

  • Hexagonal black bolts are commonly used in steelworks.
  • They are made from low or medium carbon steels.
  • They are designated as black bolts M x d x l where d = diameter and l = length of the bolts.

Precision and Semi Precision Bolts

  • They are also known as close tolerance bolts.
  • Sometimes to prevent excessive slip, close tolerance bolts are provided in holes of 0.15 to 0.2 mm oversize. This may cause difficulty in alignment and delay in the progress of work.
  • Types of Riveted and Bolted Joints.

There are two types of riveted or bolted joints:

1. Lap joint

  • The lap joint is that in which the plates to be connected overlap each other.
  • The lap joint may have single-row, staggered or chain riveting.

Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)

2. Butt joint

  • The butt joint is that in which the plates to be connected butt against each other, and the connection is made by providing a cover plate on one or both sides of the joint.

Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)

  • The butt joint may have a single row or staggered or chain riveting.

Failure of Riveted/Bolted Joints

  1. By Tearing of Plate between rivets
    Strength of tearing per pitch length
    Pt = (p – d') t x ft
    where ff = Permissible tensile stress in plates
    t = Thickness of plate
    d' = Dia of hole (gross dia of rivet)
    p = Pitch
  2. Strength of rivet in single shear Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)
  3. Strength of rivet in double shearStructural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)
    where fs = allowable shear stress in rivets
    d' = dia of the hole.
  4. Failure due to bearing of crushing of rivet of plates
    Strength of rivet in bearing Pb = fb.d'2.t
    where, fb = bearing strength of rivet.

Efficiency of Joints (η) 

Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)

Where, Ps = Strength of joint in shear
  Pb = Strength of joint in bearing
  Pt = Strength of joint in tearing
P = Strength of plate in tearing when no deduction has been made for rivet holes
= p. t. ft 

  • Rivet value Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)
  • Number of rivets, Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)

IS 800: 1984 Recommendation

Maximum permissible stress in rivets & bolts
Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)

  • Rivet diameter, Pitch

Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)

Where t = thickness of the thinner outside plate

Permissible Stresses
Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)

Max Permissible Deflections

  • Max permissible horizontal and vertical deflection Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)
  • Max permissible deflection when supported elements are susceptible to cracking image015
  • Max permissible deflection when supported elements are not susceptible to cracking Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE) 

Arrangement of Rivets

  1. Chain RivetingStructural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)
  2. Diamond RivetingStructural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)
  3. Staggered RivetingStructural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)
    Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)
    Where, FDi = Direct force in ith rivet.
    FTi = Force in ith rivet due to torsional moment
    ri = Distance of ith rivet from CG
    Ai = Area of ith rivet Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)
    FDi = Always acts in the direction of applied load P.
    FTi = Always acts perpendicular to the line joining CG of rivet group and the rivet under consideration.
    Fri = Resultant force in ith rivet.
    Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)

Minimum size of weld

It depends upon the thickness of the thicker plate.
Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)

Max clear spacing between the effective length of weld in compression zone = 12t or 200 mm (minimum). In tension zone = 16 t or 200 mm (minimum)

  • Slot weldStructural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)
  • Slide fillet weldStructural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)(i)Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)
    (ii) Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE) to make stress distribution uniform
    (iii) if b1 > 16t, use end fillet weld.

Welded Connection

  • Permissible Stresses
    (i) Tensions and compression on the section through the throat of butt weld = 150 N/mm2
    (ii) Shear on the section through the throat of the butt of fillet weld =108 N/mm2 ≅ 100 N/mm2
    Throat thickness t = k x size of weld
  • Butt-welded Joint Loaded Eccentrically
    Let the thickness of weld throat = t, and length of weld = d
  • Shear stress at the weld, Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)
    Where t = thickness of weld throat and d = length of the weld.Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)
  • Tensile or compressive stress due to bending at extreme fibre,
    Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)
    For the safety of joint the interaction equation.Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)
  • Equivalency Method
    Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE) (based on max distortion energy theory)
    Permissible bending stress for flanged section = 165 N/mm2 = 0.67fy
    For solid section Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE) permissible bending stress is 185 N/mm2

Fillet-Welded Joint Loaded Eccentrically
There can be two cases:

  • Load not lying in the plane of the weld
  • Load lying in the plane of the weld

1. Load not lying in the plane of the weld:

  • Let thickness of weld throat = t and total length of weld = 2 x d
  • Vertical shear stress at the weld, Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)
  • Horizontal shear stress due to bending at extreme fibre,
    Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)
  • Resultant stress, Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)
  • The value of pr should not exceed the permissible shear stress pq (= 108 MPa) in the weld.

Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)

  • For the design of this connection, the depth of weld may be estimated approximately by,
    Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)

2. Load lying in the plane of the weld: Consider a bracket connected to the flange of a column by a fillet weld as shown in figure

  • Vertical shear stress at the weld, Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)
    where, Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE) = the length of weld and t = thickness of the throat
  • Torsional stress due to moment, at any point in the weld, Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE) 
    where, T = torsional moment = W x e
    r = distance of the point from cg of weld section
    Ip = polar moment of inertia of the weld group = lx + lyStructural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)
  • The resultant stress, Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE)
  • For safety, Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE) permissible stress in fillet weld, i.e. 108 MPa.
  • The resultant stress pr will be maximum at a point where r is maximum and q is minimum.
The document Structural Fasteners (Rivets, Welds & Bolts) Notes | Study Design of Steel Structures - Civil Engineering (CE) is a part of the Civil Engineering (CE) Course Design of Steel Structures.
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