Study Notes - Components of Food Class 6 Notes | EduRev

Science Class 6

Created by: Praveen Kumar

Class 6 : Study Notes - Components of Food Class 6 Notes | EduRev

The document Study Notes - Components of Food Class 6 Notes | EduRev is a part of the Class 6 Course Science Class 6.
All you need of Class 6 at this link: Class 6

Food: It is the group of edible substances which provide energy to the living beings and repair the old tissues and build the new tissues.

Nutrition: The process of consuming nutrients required for the growth and development of our body and to obtain energy is known as nutrition.

Diet: It is the amount of food eaten by a person at a time.

Malnutrition: If a person does not get adequate food or if his/her diet does not contain all the nutrients , he or she becomes weak.When the body does not get adequate nutrition, it is said to be suffering from malnutrition.


COMPONENTS OF FOOD
1. Test for Starch, Proteins and Fats:
• Different food items contain different types of nutrients.
Study Notes - Components of Food Class 6 Notes | EduRev

Fig: Different nutrients.

•  Nutrients are chemical components in food that are required for releasing energy and helps in growth.
•  Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals are important nutrients found in food.
•  Carbohydrates and fats mainly provide energy.
•  Proteins mainly help in growth.
•  Starch and sugar are the two kinds of carbohydrates found in food.


2. To test the presence of starch in a food item, you need to:
•  Take small quantity of the food items to be tested.
•  Put 2-3 drops of iodine solution on it.
•  Observe the colour of the food item.
•  Blue-black colour indicates the presence of starch in the tested food item.

Study Notes - Components of Food Class 6 Notes | EduRevFig: Starch Test on potato.


3. To test for the presence of proteins in a food items, you need to:
•  Take a small quantity of the food items to be tested.
•  Grind/mash/paste/powder the food item.
•  Put the food item into a test tube.
•  Add 10 drops of water to the test tube.
•  Add two drops of copper sulphate solution to the test tube.
•  Add 10 drops of caustic soda solution and shake the test tube.
•  Observe the colour of the mixture.
•  Violet colour indicates the presence of proteins in the tested food item.

Study Notes - Components of Food Class 6 Notes | EduRevFig: Test for proteins. 


4. To test for the presence of fats in a food item, you need to:
•  Take a small quantity of the food item to be tested.
•  Wrap the food item in a small piece of paper.
•  Crush the food item wrapped in the paper.
•  Straighten the paper.
•  Dry the paper by keeping it in sunlight for a while.
•  Observe the paper.
•  An oily patch on the paper indicates the presence of fats in the tested food item.


NUTRIENTS AND BALANCED DIET
All living organisms require food. Food has six types of nutrients: carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals and water.


These are essential to perform all daily and metabolic activities:
(i) Carbohydrates 

Carbohydrates are compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, always in the ratio of 2:1:1.
They are oxidized in the cells to release energy. Carbohydrates include sugars, starch and cellulose.
Carbohydrates are oxidized in the body in the form of sugars. They provide instant energy.
When oxidized in the body, one mole of glucose releases 686 kilo-calories of energy.
They are mainly present in rice, potato, banana, etc.


(ii) Proteins 

Proteins are composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.

Nitrogen is the most essential element in proteins. Some proteins contain sulphur and phosphorus.

Study Notes - Components of Food Class 6 Notes | EduRevFig: Vegetables.

Amino acids are the simple, smaller units of proteins. Proteins provide chemical material for the growth and repair of the body cells and tissues.
In an emergency, they may also oxidize to release energy. Food rich in proteins includes lean meat, fish, eggs, milk, cheese, nuts, beans, peas, etc.


(iii) Fats 
Fats are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Fats have very little oxygen content, though.
They produce more energy than carbohydrates do.
Fat below the skin protects the body against rapid loss of heat.
It serves as a solvent for fat-soluble vitamins.
It is an important form for storage of food.
Common foods rich in fats are butter, cream, vegetable oils, meat, and fish liver oils.


(iv) Mineral salts 
Mineral salts are needed in the diet in small quantities. These are obtained from table salt, green vegetables and fruits.
Some important minerals are:
(a) Calcium, required for:
Strengthening bones and teeth.
Blood clotting.
Muscle contraction.
Rich sources: Milk, meat, eggs, fish, pulses, vegetables, etc.
(b) Phosphorus, required for:
• Strengthening bones and teeth.
For production of ATP during cellular respiration.
Conduction of nerve impulses.
Rich sources: Milk, meat, eggs, fish, pulses, vegetables, etc.
Study Notes - Components of Food Class 6 Notes | EduRev


(c) Iron, required for: 
Forming haemoglobin.
Rich sources: Green leafy vegetables, liver, etc.

(d) Iodine, required for:
Proper working of thyroid.
Rich sources: Vegetables, mineral water and iodized salt.


(v) Vitamins 
Vitamins are chemical substances that help maintain a healthy body.Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat soluble and can be stored in the body. Vitamin B complex and vitamin C are water soluble and cannot be stored for a long period of time.
(a) Vitamin A:

  • Promotes growth, vision.
  • Present in butter, egg yolk, milk, carrot, etc.

(b) Vitamin D: 

  • Helps the body to absorb calcium and phosphorus to form bones and teeth.
  • Present in fish liver oils, milk, eggs, etc.

(c) Vitamin E: 

  • Prevents the oxidation of vitamin A.
  • Present in meat, milk, whole wheat, etc.

(d) Vitamin K: 

  • Helps in clotting of blood during injuries.
  • Present in cabbage, spinach, leafy vegetables.

(e) Vitamin B complex: 

  • Needed for a healthy brain, nerves and muscles.
  • Present in wheat, rice and liver.

(f) Vitamin C: 

  • Helps fight diseases like the common cold.
  • Present in oranges, tomatoes, lemons and guavas.

(vi) Water
Helps the body to get rid of toxic wastes through urine and sweat, and to absorb the nutrients in food.


DEFICIENCY DISEASES
Diseases or disorders occur mainly due to the deficiency of one or more nutrients in the diet over a long period of time.
For example: wheat is rich in carbohydrates, but poor in nutrients like proteins and fats. Too much intake of wheat products results in a deficiency of proteins and fats, which reduces growth.

Study Notes - Components of Food Class 6 Notes | EduRev

Fig: Discolouration of hair.

Lack of proteins also results in stunted growth, skin diseases, swelling of the face and discoloration of the hair, and even causes diarrhoea. So a balanced diet is required to avoid deficiency diseases.


1. Diseases caused by deficiency of Minerals

  • Lack of iron in the diet leads to a deficiency disease called Anaemia.
    The symptoms of anaemia are headache, dark patches under the eyes, weakness and feeling tried. A balanced diet should, therefore, include iron-rich foods such as apples, fish and raisins to avoid anaemia. 
  • Lack of iodine in the diet leads to a deficiency disease called Goitre.
    In adults, goitre results in swollen glands at the throat. In children, iodine deficiency causes stunted mental and physical development. Iodine deficiency can be avoided by using iodized salt in the diet.


2. Diseases caused by deficiency of Vitamins

  • Lack of vitamin A in diet causes loss of vision. Symptoms include night blindness, i.e. poor vision in dim light. Eating food rich in vitamin A, such as carrot, mangoes, butter and egg yolk, helps avoid loss of vision.
    Study Notes - Components of Food Class 6 Notes | EduRev

    Fig: Beriberi.

  • Lack of vitamin B1 in the diet causes a deficiency disease called Beriberi. The symptoms are loss of weight and weak muscles. Food rich in vitamin B1, such as beans, meat, eggs and corn, helps avoid beriberi.
  • Lack of vitamin C in the diet causes a deficiency disease called Scurvy. The symptoms of scurvy are bleeding gums. Moreover, wounds take longer to heal. Oranges, tomatoes, lemon, guavas and amla are rich in vitamin C, so eating these helps avoid scurvy.
    Study Notes - Components of Food Class 6 Notes | EduRev

    Fig: Scurvy.

  • Lack of vitamin D in the diet causes a deficiency disease called Rickets. The symptoms are soft and bent bones. The diet should include fish, eggs, milk and butter to avoid rickets. In addition, exposure to sunlight produces vitamin D in the body.

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