Subhash Chandra Bose And Indian National Army - The Freedom Struggle, History, UPSC UPSC Notes | EduRev

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Subhash Chandra Bose And Indian National Army

  • Subhas Bose had been a Swarajist and was considered the Lieu­tenant of C.R.Das. He was elected Con­gress President in 1938 and 1939. In 1939 at Tripuri, he won agasinst the wishes of Gandhi.
  • Due to the controversy that be­gan regarding the nomination of the members of the Congress Working Committee, Bose resigned from the Congress presidentship and was suc­ceeded by Dr. Rajendra Prasad.
  • l Bose organized an Anti-Com­promise Front at the Ramgarh Con­gress of 1940. On January 27, 1941 he fled from the country. On May 29, he had a meeting with Hitler but the latter was not willing to accept Bose’s suggestion of the declaration of a free India. Bose used to German Radio for broadcasting heroic messages to India.
  • He organized the Indian National Army with the cooperation of Rash Bihari Bose, the old revolutionist, who had organized the bomb attack on Lord Hardinge in 1912.
  • The Indian National Army (I.N.A.) consisted of more than sixty thousand soldiers.
  • On 20 June, 1943 Bose reached Tokyo. On August 25, 1943, he de­clared from Singapore that the national flag would be hoisted on the Viceregal Lodge in Delhi.
  • After meeting with Bose, Prime Minister Tojo of Japan declared in the Japanese Diet that full support would be given for the independence of India and for the elimination of the British influence from the country.
  • On 21 October 1943, the Pro­visional Government of Independent In­dia (Azad Hind) was set up in Singapore and on 23 October Japan and on 26 October Germany recognized the Azad Hind Government. Burma, Rhodesia, China, Thailand, Italy and Philippines also recognised it.
  • The Provisional Government of Azad Hind declared war on Britain and U.S.A. on 22 October, 1943.
  • On December 30, 1943, the Indian national flag was hoisted on Port Blair and with the control over Andaman and Nicobar islands, the Azad Hind Government got a territorial base of its own.
  • On March 18, 1944 the l.N.A. crossed the frontiers of Burma and In­dia. It captured Tiddin and after cross­ing the Burma border reached Indian territories.
  • On October 2, 1944, while cel­ebrating the Gandhi Jayanti, Subhas Bose declared that after India had be­come independent through the armed might of the l.N.A., it (India) under the prophetic leadership of Mahatma Gandhi would deliver the message of non-violence to the world.
  • A battalion of the Subhas Bri­gade was able to defeat contingent of the British India Army. In January 1945, Netaji Subhas reached Burma. How­ever, eventually, the INA had to re- treat.
  • After the surrender of Japan in Aug., 1945 Netaji advised the INA to surrender to the British army. He died on 23 August, 1945 in a plane acci­dent, while going from Bangkok to To­kyo.

THE WAVELL PLAN, 1945

  • Lord Wavell sought to muster Indian national support for war against Japan which was expected to last an­other year. Wavell Proposals were broad­casted over A.l.R. on 14 June, 1945. 21 Indian leaders invited to Simla Con­ference to discuss Wavell Plan.
  • Aim of the Simla Conference was to evolve agreed formula for for­mation of Viceroy’s Executive Council as contemplated under Cripps propos­als.

Main points of Wavell Plan were:

  • With the exception of the Gov­ernor-General and Commander-in-Chief all members of Executive Council to be Indians.
  • Hindus and Muslims to have equal repres-entation.
  • New Executive Councils to work under the existing Indian Conslitution.
  • Governor-General to retain right to override Executive Council but not to use it unreasonably.
  • However, Wavell announced fail­ure of Simla Conference on 14 July, 1945.
  • Reason for failure can be summed up as:
  • Jinnah wanted the right to sup­ply list of all Muslim Executive Coun­cillors.
  • Jinnah wanted special safeguards for Muslim bloc within the Council.
  • Wavell conceded a virtual veto to Jinnah.
  •  Anglo-lndian bureaucracy worked for its failure.

Outcome of Wavell Plan

  • It exposed the real character of the Conservative Government of Churchill.
  • It boosted the position of Jinnah in Indian politics.
  • Jinnah became the unquestioned leader of Indian Muslims.
  • The establishment of Pakistan was no longer in doubt.
  • Release of Congress leaders from jails gave them fresh opportunity to prepare for forthcoming general elec­tions of 1945-46.
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