The Joule Thomson Effect - Thermodynamic Chemistry Notes | EduRev

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The Joule Thomson Effect

The phenomenon of change of temperature produced when a gas is made to expand adiabatically from a region of high pressure to a region of externally low pressure is known as the Joule-Thomson Effect.
The ratio of change in temperature w.r.t. change in pressure at constant enthalpy is known as JouleThomson coefficient.  This experiment is known as Joule Thomson experiment.

 The Joule Thomson Effect - Thermodynamic Chemistry Notes | EduRev

Suppose a certain amount of gas is passed through the porous plug.  We than have
Change in volume on the left hand side = – V1
Work involved on the left hand side = P1V1
Change in volume on right hand side = V2
Work involved on the right hand side = – P2V2
Net work involved in the system = – P2V2 + P1V
Because the process is adiabat ic, dq = 0 then from first law
We have, dq = dU – ω = 0
dU = ω
or U2 – U1 = – P2V2 + P1V1
U2 + P2V2 = U1 + P1V1
or
H= H1
i.e., adiabatic process is isoenthalpic in Joule-Thomson experiment.
Joule Thomson coefficient is represented by  mJ.T and is equal to

 The Joule Thomson Effect - Thermodynamic Chemistry Notes | EduRev

We now that,
H = H(P,T)

 The Joule Thomson Effect - Thermodynamic Chemistry Notes | EduRev                 The Joule Thomson Effect - Thermodynamic Chemistry Notes | EduRev
The Joule Thomson Effect - Thermodynamic Chemistry Notes | EduRev
The Joule Thomson Effect - Thermodynamic Chemistry Notes | EduRev
The Joule Thomson Effect - Thermodynamic Chemistry Notes | EduRev
The Joule Thomson Effect - Thermodynamic Chemistry Notes | EduRev

We know that  
The Joule Thomson Effect - Thermodynamic Chemistry Notes | EduRev

 then we have,

 The Joule Thomson Effect - Thermodynamic Chemistry Notes | EduRev
The Joule Thomson Effect - Thermodynamic Chemistry Notes | EduRev
i.e.   

The Joule Thomson Effect - Thermodynamic Chemistry Notes | EduRev
The Joule Thomson Effect - Thermodynamic Chemistry Notes | EduRev

Inversion temperature: The temperature at which the Joules-Thomson coefficient changes sign is known as the inversion temperature. Another words, inversion temperature is the temperature at which real gas behave ideally.
We know that μJ .T. = 0 for ideal gas

 The Joule Thomson Effect - Thermodynamic Chemistry Notes | EduRev
The Joule Thomson Effect - Thermodynamic Chemistry Notes | EduRev
⇒ The Joule Thomson Effect - Thermodynamic Chemistry Notes | EduRev
The Joule Thomson Effect - Thermodynamic Chemistry Notes | EduRev

Where Ti is known as inversion temperature.

Zeroth law of thermodynamics: “If body A is in equilibrium with body B is also in equilibrium with body C, then bodies A and B are in equilibrium with each other.”

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