The Mughal Empire UPSC Notes | EduRev

संशोधन नोटस Revision notes for UPSC (Hindi)

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  • Babur wrote his autobiography Babur-namah or Tuzuk-i-Baburi in Turkish language, which was his mother-tongue.
  • The Atqakhail, who conspired for the fall of Bairam Khan, were relations of Akbar’s foster-mother Maham Anaga.
  • After recapturing Delhi and his second coronation in Delhi, Humayun could only rule for six months.
  • At the time of his coronation at Kalanaur the age of Akbar was thirteen and a half.
  • Akbar’s marriage with the princess of Amber was unique because this was a voluntary alliance, different from the forced marriages of Muslim rulers with the Rajput princesses.
  • The Mughal troops captured Chittor in 1568 after defeating Rana Amar Singh.
  • The Afghan power in Orissa was crushed by Raja Man Singh.
  • The greatest crisis that Akbar faced in 1580-81 was when the disgruntled nobles and officers declared Akbar’s half-brother Mirza Hakim as their ruler.
  • The most valuable acquisition of Akbar in the North-west frontier was Kandahar.
  • After the conquest of Asirgarh in 1601, Akbar renamed Khandesh as Dandesh.
  • Abul Fazl, the celebrated author of Akbarnama, was murdered by Bir Singh Deva Bundela.
  • The Jesuit missionary who held personal discussions with Akbar and has written interesting account of him, was Antony Monserrate.
  • A contemporary Mughal historian who prepared a list of charges against Akbar and called him the enemy of Islam, was Badauni.
  • The well-known work Tabaqat-i-Akbari was written by Khwaja Nizamuddin Ahmad.
  • Mewar submitted to the Mughals during the reign of Jahangir largely owing to the able command of Prince Khurram.
  • Akbar divided the Mughal empire into provinces for the first time.
  • Under Diwan the provincial Bakshi worked.
  • Fauzdar was usually kept in charge of the sarkars.
  • Shiqdar was in-charge of the administration of the parganas or mahals.
  • The Marathas came to be admitted to the nobility during the reign of Jahangir.
  • The origins of the mansabdari system can be traced back to Chengiz Khan.
  • Akbar introduced the mansabdari system in order to organise the nobility as well as his army.
  • The highest rank (mansab) an ordinary officer could hold in the mansabdari system as originally devised by Akbar was a commander of 5,000.
  • The important modification introduced by Shah Jahan to the mansabdari system was that he drastically reduced the number of sawars a noble was required to maintain.
  • The Mughal emperors insisted on the mansabdars maintaining mixed contingents comprising Mughals, Pathans, Rajputs, etc. in order to weaken the forces of tribalism and parochialism.
  • The troops raised by the emperor but not paid directly by the state and placed under the charge of mansabdars were known as Dakhili.
  • The clique of four persons who ruled the Mughal empire from 1611 to 1621 comprised Nur Jahan, Asaf Khan, Itmaduddaulah and Asaf Khan.
  • The greatest failure of the reign of Jahangir was the loss of Kandahar to Persia.
  • Akbar conferred the title of Jagatguru on Jain saint Harivijaya Suri.
  • The Mughal emperor who allowed a chain with bells to be hung outside his place to enable petitioners to bring their grievances to the notice of the emperor was Jahangir.
  • During Mughal period Bengal was famous for Sugar.
  • During the Mughal period the assessed land revenue (jama) was always higher than the actual revenue collected (hasil), because revenue was deliberately assessed high.
  • The most severe famine which affected the Mughal empire was the 1630-32 famine in the Deccan and Gujarat.
  • The first Mughal emperor to organise some sort of distress relief during the famines was Akbar.
  • The reason for honouring the peasants’ right of occupancy during the Mughal period was that the land was plenty and the peasants scarce.
  • Akbar made a new experiment by abolishing old revenue areas and dividing North India (Gujarat, Bihar and Bengal excluded) into a large number of units each yielding one kror (crore) a year, under officials appropriately called kroris. The important objective of this ‘krori’ experiment was to encourage cultivation.
  • Under the zabti system the most fertile land was classified as Polaj.
  • The motive behind different rates of assessment for different classes of land was to help in bringing virgin and uncultivated waste land under cultivation.
  • The reason for each class of land being divided into three grades, namely, good, middling and bad was to ascertain the average produce of land belonging to each class.
  • In the Mughal period the zamindars served the state as an agency for collection of land revenue.
  • The revenue assessment known as batai, ghalla bakshi or bhaoli was a method of crop-sharing on the basis of actual production.
  • The main advantage of the kankut system over batai system was that in the kankut system no watch was required at the time of threshing.
  • Crops like cotton, indigo, oil-seeds, sugarcane, etc. were known as cash crops because the state demand in the case of these crops was invariably in cash.
  • The Amalguzar or revenue colelctor was in charge of Sarkar.
  • One of the subordinate revenue staff, who was not a servant of the state but of the village community, was Muqaddam or headman.
  • One of the revolts during Aurangzeb’s period which had a peasant-agrarian background was of Jats and Satnamis.
  • The usual reaction of the peasants to revenue oppression was desertion of the village.
  • In the field of art and architecture, the Mughal period may be appropriately described as an age of continuation and culmination.
  • Mughal architecture reveals a happy blending of Persian and Indian styles
  • The Persian influence in Mughal architecture did not predominate up to the end of the reign of Akbar.
  • Akbar founded the city of Fatehpur Sikri to commemorate victory of Gujarat.
  • The Buland Darwaza or the gateway to the Jama Masjid in Fatehpur Sikri was built by Akbar to commemorate his victory of Gujarat.
  • The Buland Darwaza is in the style of what is called a half-dome portal (i.e. slicing a dome into half). This device was borrowed from Persia.
  • “If on Earth be an Eden of bliss, it is this, it is this, none but this.” It is engraved in Diwan-i-Khas, Delhi.
  • The Mughal emperor who was an excellent connoisseur of paintings was Jahangir.
  • Development of fresco painting was the important contribution to the field of painting made during Akbar’s period.
  • Akbar justified the encouragement given by him to painting on the religious grounds that a painter was engaged in creating in man the image of God.
  • The type of painting which made special progress during the reign of Jahangir was Portrait painting.
  • One of the painters of Jahangir’s court who was famous for his paintings of animals and human portraits was Ustad Mansur.
  • One of the painters at Jahangir’s court who was not a foreigner was Ustad Mansur.
  • The last great royal patron of the Mughal school of painting was Aurangzeb.
  • The school of painting—a product of the union of Mughal art and the hilly folk art of the Himalayas—was Basholi School.
  • Akbar is reputed to have been a good player of Nakkarah.
  • The Mughal emperor credited with the composition of many Hindi songs was Jahangir.
  • The Mughal emperor credited with such attractive voice that “many pure-souled Sufis and holy men....lost their senses in the ecstasy produced by his singing”, was Shah Jahan.
  • The Mughal emperor who was an accomplished veena player was Aurangzeb.
  • The Razmnama, compiled by several scholars, was a Persian translation of Mahabharata.
  • The most famous poet of Akbar’s court was Ghizali.
  • Jahangir’s autobiography is Tuzk-i-Jahangiri
  • The Mughal building which has the deep “imprint of the refined feminism of Nur Jahan” is her Father Itmad-ud-daulah’s tomb at Agra.
  • Monserrate and Aquaviva were sent to Akbar’s court by the Portuguese.
  • Sir Thomas Roe was sent as the British Ambassador to the court of Jahangir.
  • One of the foreign travellers who was an eyewitness to the public disgrace in Delhi of Dara Shikoh after his defeat by Aurangzeb in the war of succession was Munucci.
  • A foreign traveller who visited India during Aurganzeb’s time and described the latter’s regulation issued to promote general morality was Niccolao Munucci.
  • A foreigner who left an account of the deplorable state of public security in Mughal India during the reign of Shah Jahan was Peter Mundy.
  • A foreign traveller who has given a classic description of the later years of Aurangzeb was Dr. Gemelli Carreri.
  • A foreign traveller who visited India during the Mughal period, was a jeweller and has left us an expert’s description of the Peacock Throne, was Travernier.
  • The worst political failure of the reign of Shah Jahan was the recovery and loss of Kandahar to Persia.
  • Dara Shikoh finally lost the war of succession to Aurangzeb in the battle of Samugarh.
  • Aurangzeb tried to annex Marwar on the plea that Raja Jaswant Singh of Marwar had died childless.
  • A valiant Rajput chief who saved Marwar from being annexed by Aurangzeb was Durga Dass.
  • Aurangzeb’s “height of political unwisdom” was attempt to incorporate Marwar in the Mughal empire.
  • The Mughal princess who wrote under the nom de plume Makhi and produced a graceful diwan or collection of poems was Aurangzeb daughter, Zibunnisa.
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