|Positive or Affirmative sentences||Sub + had + V3|
|Negative Sentences||Sub + had not + V3|
|Interrogative Sentences||Had + sub + V3 + ?|
|Interrogative-negative Sentences||Had + sub + not + V3 + ?|
Let’s understand them with examples
|Positive or Affirmative||Negative||Interrogative||Interrogative negative|
|I had played.||I had not played.||Had I played?||Had I not played?|
|You/ we had played.||You/ we had not played.||Had you/ we played?||Had you/ we not played?|
|He/ She/ It had played.||He/ She/ It had not played.||Had he/ she/ it played?||Had/ he/ she/ it not played?|
|They had played.||They had not played.||Had they played?||Had they not played?|
Note: Short form of had not = hadn’t
The Past Perfect Tense is used to
1. express an action that had been completed before another action started; e.g.,
(i) I had eaten before the guests arrived.
(ii) The patient had died before the doctor came.
(iii) The thief had run away before the police came.
(iv) Namita had washed utensils before the maid came.
Note: If two actions take place in past, use past perfect tense for the action taking place first (for example, the train had left) and use past indefinite tense for the latter (for example, before I reached the station.)
2. express an action that has completed before the beginning of second action; e.g.,
(i) She had already done her work by 6 p.m. yesterday.
(ii) She had completed her work by 9 p.m. yesterday.
3. express an unfulfilled wish of the past; e.g.,
(i) I wished that my younger brother had scored the highest marks in his class.
(ii) If only you had told the truth.
(iii) He wished that he had accepted the offer.
(iv) If only you had caught the thief.