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|120° Mode Inverter – Circuit Diagram, Operation and Formula|
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This article explains the 120° mode inverter with the help of relevant circuit diagrams, output waveforms. Formulas for phase and line voltage & merits and demerits of 120° Mode inverter over 180° mode inverter has also been explained.
For 120° mode inverter, each thyristor conducts for 120° of a cycle. Like 180° mode, 120° mode inverter also requires six steps, each of 60° duration, for completing one cycle of the output AC voltage. Here it should be noted that step is nothing but the change in firing of one thyristor to the next thyristor in a proper sequence.
The power circuit diagram of a 120° Mode Inverter is shown in the figure below.
The firing sequence for 120° Mode Inverter Operation is tabulated below.
It can be seen from the above table that each of the thyristor conducts for 120° duration only and it remains off for the next 60°. This is different from 180° operation mode where each thyristor conducts for 180° duration.
In the first row of table, T1 is shown to be conducting for 120° and for the next 60° neither T1 not T4 conducts. T4 is turned ON at wt=180° and it further conducts for next 120° i.e. up to ωt = 300°. This simply means that for 60° interval i.e. from ωt=300° to 360°, neither T1 nor T4 conducts. In fact, at ωt = 300°, T4 is tuned OFF and at ωt = 360°, T1 is turned ON again.
In the second row of table, T3 is turned ON at ωt = 120° and it conducts for next 120°. Then 60° interval elapses during which neither T3 nor T6 conducts. At ωt = 300°, T6 is turned ON. It also conducts for next 120° and then 60° interval elapses after which T3 is turned ON again. The third row is also completed in the same manner.
The table for firing sequence can be used to define the steps of the three phase inverter for its 120° mode operation. In Step-I, T1 & T6 should be gated; T1 & T2 for step-II; T2 & T3 for step-III and so on. During each step, only two thyristors are conducting- one from the upper arm and another one from the lower arm.
To calculate the line & phase voltage at the load terminals for 120° Mode Inverter, we will have to draw equivalent circuit diagram of the three phase inverter for each of step. While drawing equivalent circuit, it is assumed that the load is STAR connected and resistive in nature. Figure below shows the equivalent circuit for Step-I and Step-II.
In step-II, only two thyristors T1 & T6 are conducting. These conducting thyristors are shown as a closed switch and remaining non-conducting thyristors are shown as an open switch in the equivalent circuit diagram.
With reference to the equivalent circuit of Step-I, it may be noted that load terminal “a” is connected to the positive bus while terminal “b” is connected to negative bus. This means the voltage across terminals “ab” will be equal to the source voltage Vs. It is also clear that, load terminal “c” is open in this step. Let us now calculate the phase to neutral voltage and phase to phase voltages in step-I.
Phase to neutral voltage Vao
Phase to neutral voltage Vbo
Phase to neutral voltage Vco
Line voltage Vab, Vbc and Vca may be calculated using simple arithmetic as shown below.
Vab = Vao + Vob
Vbc = Vbo + Voc
Vca = Vco + Voa
The phase and line voltages for all the remaining steps may also be calculated in the same way using their equivalent circuit. I am not calculating these voltages for the remaining steps. These phase and line voltages may be plotted to get the output voltage waveform.
The output voltage waveform of three phase inverter for its 120° mode Inverter is shown below:
Following points should be noted from the output voltage waveform
The merits and demerits of 120 degree mode inverter over 180 degree mode inverter are as follows:
Formula of Phase and Line Voltage
RMS Value of Phase Voltage
RMS Value of Line Voltage
RMS Value of fundamental phase voltage
RMS value of fundamental line voltage