1.1 INTRODUCTION: WHY PARTNERSHIP?
An individual i.e., a sole proprietor may not be in a position to cope with the financial and managerial demands of the present day business world. As a result, two or more individuals may decide to pool their financial and non-financial resources to carry on a business. The preparation of final accounts of sole proprietors have already been discussed in chapter 6. The final accounts of partnership firms including basic concepts of accounting for admission of a partner, retirement and death of a partner have been discussed in succeeding units of this chapter.
1.2 DEFINITION AND FEATURES OF PARTNERSHIP
As per Section 4 of the Partnership Act, 1932:
“Partnership is the relation between persons who have agreed to share the profit of a business carried on by all or any of them acting for all.”
Features of a partnership,
(i) Existence of an agreement: As per section 5 of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932, The relation of partnership arises from contract between parties and not from status as it happens in case of HUF (Hindu Undivided Family). A formal or written agreement is not necessary to create a partnership.
(ii) Business: A partnership can exist only in business. Thus, it is not the agreement alone which creates a partnership. A partnership comes into existence only when partners begin to carry on business in accordance with their agreement. Section 2 (b)of Indian Partnership Act, 1932 only states that business includes every trade, occupation and profession.
(iii) Sharing of profit: The persons concerned must agree to share the profits of the business. Because no person is a partner unless he or she has the right to share the profits of the business. Section 4 of Indian Partnership Act, 1932 does not insist upon sharing of losses. Thus, a provision for sharing of loss is not necessary.
(iv) Mutual agency: It means that the business is to be carried on by all or any of them acting for all. Thus, if the person carrying on the business acts not only for himself but for others also so that they stand in the positions of principals and agents, they are partners.
Number of Partners: Minimum Partners: Two
Maximum Partners: As per Section 464 of the Companies Act, 2013, no association or partnership consisting of more than 100 number of persons as may be prescribed shall be formed for the purpose of carrying on any business. Rule 10 of Companies (incorporation) Rules 2014 specifies the limit as 50 .Thus, maximum number of members in a partnership firm are 50.
1.3 LIMITED LIABILITY PARTNERSHIP
The Indian Partnership Act of 1932 provides for a general form of partnership which has inherent shortcoming of unlimited liability of all partners for business debts and legal consequences, regardless of their holding or profit sharing ratio, as the firm is not a legal entity. General partners are also jointly and severally liable for tortuous acts of co-partners. In case of liquidation personal assets of partners can be liquidated to meet liabilities of the firm. With the growth of the Indian economy, the role played by its entrepreneurs as well as its technical and professional manpower has been acknowledged internationally. Entrepreneurship, knowledge, risk and capital may be combined to provide a further impetus to India’s economic growth. In this background, a need has been felt for a new corporate form that would provide an alternative to the traditional partnership, with unlimited personal liability on the one hand, and, the statute-based governance structure of the limited liability company on the other. This would enable professional expertise and entrepreneurial initiative to combine, organize and operate in flexible, innovative and efficient manner.
The Government felt that with Indian professionals increasingly transacting with or representing multinationals in international transactions, the extent of the liability they could potentially be exposed to, is extremely high. Hence, in order to encourage Indian professionals to participate in the international business community without apprehension of being subject to excessive liability, the need for having a legal structure like the LLP is encouraged. Thus in convergence towards global scenario, Limited Liability Partnership Act, 2008 was introduced. The Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) is viewed as an alternative corporate business proposal that provides the benefits of limited liability but allows its members, the flexibility of organizing their internal structure as a partnership, which is based on a mutually arrived agreement.
The LLP will be a separate legal entity, liable to the full extent of its assets, with the liability of the partners being limited to their agreed contribution in the LLP which may be of tangible or intangible nature or both tangible and intangible in nature. No partner would be liable on account of the independent or unauthorized actions of other partners or their misconduct. The liabilities of the LLP and partners who are found to have acted with intent to defraud Creditors or for any fraudulent purpose shall be unlimited for all or any of the debts or other liabilities of the LLP. The main benefit in an LLP is that it is taxed as a partnership, but has the benefits of being a corporate, or more significantly, a juristic entity with limited liability. An LLP has the special characteristic of being a separate legal personality distinct from its partners. The LLP is a body corporate in nature. The Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) in India were introduced by Limited Liability Partnership Act, 2008 which lay down the law for the formation and regulation of Limited Liability Partnerships.
1.3.1 Definition of LLP
Section 2 of the Limited Liability Partnership (LLPs) Act, 2008 defines limited liability partnership” as a partnership formed and registered under this Act; and “limited liability partnership agreement” means any written agreement between the partners of the limited liability partnership or between the limited liability partnership and its partners which determines the mutual rights and duties of the partners and their rights and duties in relation to that limited liability partnership.
1.3.2 Non-applicability of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932
Save as otherwise provided, the provisions of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932 shall not apply to a limited liability partnership.
1.3.3 Minimum number of partners in case of LLP
As per the LLP Act, any individual or body corporate may be a partner in a limited liability partnership; provided that an individual shall not be capable of becoming a partner of a limited liability partnership, if
(a) he has been found to be of unsound mind by a Court of competent jurisdiction and the finding is in force;
(b) he is an undischarged insolvent; or
(c) he has applied to be adjudicated as an insolvent and his application is pending.
Every limited liability partnership shall have at least two partners. If at any time the number of partners of a limited liability partnership is reduced below two and the limited liability partnership carries on business for more than six months while the number is so reduced, the person, who is the only partner of the limited liability partnership during the time that it so carries on business after those six months and has the knowledge of the fact that it is carrying on business with him alone, shall be liable personally for the obligations of the limited liability partnership in curred during that period.
1.4 DISTINCTION BETWEEN AN ORDINARY PARTNERSHIP FIRM
AND AN LLP
However, in the chapter the scope of discussion has been restricted to Partnership accounts as per the Indian Partnership Act, 1932 only.
1.5 MAIN CLAUSES IN A PARTNERSHIP DEED
The relation between the partners is governed by mutual agreement known as partnership deed. It should be comprehensive to avoid disputes later on. It is usual therefore, to find the following clauses in a Partnership Deed which may or may not be registered.
1. Name of the firm and the partners;
2. Commencement and duration of business;
3. Amount of capital to be contributed by each partner;
4. Amount to be allowed to each partner as drawings and the timings of such drawings;
5. Rate of interest to be allowed to each partner on his capital and on his loan to the firm, and to be charged on his drawings;
6. The ratio in which profits or losses are to be shared;
7. Whether a partner will be allowed to draw any salary;
8. Any variations in the mutual rights and duties of partners;
9. Method of valuing goodwill on the occasions of changes in the constitution of the firm; 10. Procedure by which a partner may retire and the method of payment of his dues;
11. Basis of the determination of the executors of a deceased partner and the method of payment;
12. Treatment of losses arising out of the insolvency of a partner;
13. Procedure to be allowed for settlement of disputes among partners;
14. Preparation of accounts and their audit.
Registration of the firm is not compulsory, but non-registration restricts the partners or the firm from taking any legal action. Often there is no written Partnership Deed or, if there is one, it may be silent on a particular point. In that case the relevant sections of the Partnership Act will apply. If on any point the Partnership Deed contains a clause, it will hold good; otherwise the provisions of the Act relating to the questions will apply.
Rules in the absence of Partnership Deed
In the absence of any agreement to the contrary;
1. No partner has the right to a salary,
2. No interest is to be allowed on capital,
3. No interest is to be charged on the drawings,
4. Interest at the rate of 6%.p.a is to be allowed on a partner’s loan to the firm, and
5. Profits and losses are to be shared equally.
A and B commenced business in partnership on 1 January 2016. No partnership agreement was made either oral or written. They contributed Rs 40,000 and Rs 10,000 respectively as capital. In addition, A also advanced Rs 20,000 on 1 July 2016. A met with an accident on 1 April 2016 and could not attend to the partnership business upto 30 June 2016. The profits for the year ended on 31 December 2016 amounted to Rs 50,600. Disputes having been arisen between them for sharing the profits.
A claims: (i) He should be given interest at 10% p.a. on capital and loan (ii) Profit should be distributed in proportion of capital.
B claims: (i) Net profit should be shared equally.
(ii) He should be allowed remuneration of Rs 1,000 p.m. during the period of A’s illness. (iii) Interest on capital and loan should be given @ 6% p.a.You are required to settle the dispute between them and distribute the profits according to law. State reasons for your answer.
Since there is no written or oral partnership agreement, Following rules are applicable as per Indian partnership act 1932
(a) No interest is allowed on capital. (b) 6% interest is allowed on the loan advanced. (c) Profits and losses shall be shared equally. (d) No remuneration is allowed to any partner for taking part in the conduct of the business.Thus
a) neither of A nor B will be allowed interest on capital
b) 6% interest will be allowed to both A and B
c) Profit and losses shall be shared equally between A and B
d) No remuneration shall be allowed to B.
A, B and C are partners in a firm sharing profits and losses in the ratio of 2:3:5. Their fixed capitals were Rs 15,00,000, Rs 3000,000 and Rs 60,00,000 respectively. For the year 2016 interest on capital was credited to them @ 12% instead of 10%. Pass the necessary adjustment entry.
The necessary journal entry will be:
1.6 POWERS OF PARTNERS
The Partners are supposed to have the power to act in certain matters and not to have such powers in others. In other words, unless a public notice has been given to the contrary, certain contracts entered into by a partner on behalf of the partnership, even without consulting other partners are binding and the provisions of the Act relating to the question will apply. In case of a trading firm, the implied powers of partners are the following:
(a) Buying and selling of goods;
(b) Receiving payments on behalf of the firm and giving valid receipt;
(c) Drawing cheques and drawing, accepting and endorsing bills of exchange and promissory notes in the name of the firm;
(d) Borrowing money on behalf of the firm with or without pledging the inventories-in trade;
(e) Engaging servants for the business of the firm.
In certain cases an individual partner has no power to bind the firm. This is to say that third parties cannot bind the firm unless all the partners have agreed. These cases are:
(a) Submitting a dispute relating to the firm arbitration;
(b) Opening a bank account on behalf of the firm in the name of a partner;
(c) Compromise or relinquishment of any claim or portion of claim by the firm;
(d) Withdrawal of a suit or proceeding filed on behalf of the firm;
(e) Admission of any liability in a suit or proceedings against the firm;
(f) Acquisition of immovable property belonging to the firm;
(g) Entering into partnership on behalf of the firm.
The rights, duties and power of partners can be changed by mutual consent.
Partnership Act doesn’t specify any format for preparation of accounts of Partnership Firm and thus accounts are prepared as per Basic rules of accounts. There is not much diffierence between the accounts of a partnership firm and that of sole proprietorship (provided there is no change in the firm itself). The only diffierence to be noted is that instead of one Capital Account there will be as many Capital Accounts as there are partners. If, for instance, there are three partners; A, B, and C, then there will be a Capital Account for each one of the partners; A’s Capital Account will be credited by the amount contributed by him as capital and similarly B’s and C’s Capital Accounts will be credited with the amounts brought in by them respectively as capital. When a partner takes money out of the firms for his domestic purpose, either his Capital Account can be debited or a separate account, named as Drawings Account, can be opened in his name and the account may be debited. In a Trial Balance of a partnership firm, therefore, one may find Capital Accounts of partners as well as Drawings Accounts. Finally the Drawings Account of a partner may be transferred to his Capital Account so that a net figure is available. But, often the Drawings Account or Current Account (as it is usually called) remains separate.
1.8 PROFIT AND LOSS APPROPRIATION
During the course of business, a partnership firm will prepare Trading Account and a Profit and Loss Account at the end of every year. The final accounts of a sole proprietorship concern will not differ from the accounts of a partnership firm. The Profit and Loss Account will show the profit earned by the firm or loss suffered by it. This profit or loss has to be transferred to the Capital Accounts of partners according to the terms of the Partnership Deed or according to the provisions of the Indian Partnership Act (if there is no Partnership Deed or if the Deed is silent on a particular point). Suppose the Profit and Loss Account reveals a profit of Rs 90,000. There are two partners, A and B. A devotes all his time to the firm; B does not. A’s capital is Rs 50,000 and B’s is Rs 20,000. There is no Partnership Deed. In such a case the profit will be distributed among A and B equally. This is irrespective of the fact that B does not work as much as A does and B’s capital is much less than that of A. But if the Partnership Deed lays down that A is to get a salary and interest is to be allowed on the capital, then first of all, from the profit earned, A’s salary must be deducted and interest on the Capital Accounts of both partners will be deducted. The remaining profit will be divided equally between A and B. Further if the Partnership Deed says that profits are to be divided in the ratio of, say, three-fourth to A and one-fourth to B, then this will be the ratio to be adopted. In a partnership, profit has to be divided between the partners in a certain profit sharing ratio after making necessary adjustments stated in the partnership deed such as interest on capitals, drawings and loans; salaries or/and commission to partners etc. Accordingly, an additional account is prepared and net profit is transferred from the debit side of the profit and loss account to the credit side of this new account which is called Profit and Loss Appropriation Account and before the profit is divided between partners, it is necessary to record the above stated adjustments in this account. The student can see for himself that if a salary is to be allowed to a partner, the Profit and Loss Appropriation Account will be debited and the Partner’s Capital Account will be credited. Similarly, if interest is to be allowed on capital, the Profit and Loss Appropriation Account will be debited and the respective Capital Accounts will be credited.
Let us take an illustration to understand how to divide profits among partners.
A and B start business on 1st January, 2016, with capitals of Rs 30,000 and Rs 20,000. According to the Partnership Deed, B is entitled to a salary of Rs 500 per month and interest is to be allowed on capitals at 6% per annum. The remaining profits are to be distributed amongst the partners in the ratio of 5:3. During 2016 the firm earned a profit, before charging salary to B and interest on capital amounting to Rs 25,000. During the year A withdrew Rs 8,000 and B withdrew Rs 10,000 for domestic purposes.
Give journal entries relating to division of profit.
Now, let us learn the preparation of profit and loss appropriation account with the help of same illustration of partnership firm consisting of partners A and B.
Ram, Rahim and Karim are partners in a firm. They have no agreement in respect of profit-sharing ratio, interest on capital, interest on loan advanced by partners and remuneration payable to partners. In the matter of distribution of profits they have put forward the following claims:
(i) Ram, who has contributed maximum capital demands interest on capital at 10% p.a. and share of profit in the capital ratio. But Rahim and Karim do not agree.
(ii) Rahim has devoted full time for running the business and demands salary at the rate of Rs 500 p.m. But Ram and Karim do not agree.
(iii) Karim demands interest on loan of Rs 2,000 advanced by him at the market rate of interest which is 12% p.a.
How shall you settle the dispute and prepare Profit and Loss Appropriation Account after transferring 10% of the divisible profit to Reserve. Net profit before taking into account any of the above claims amounted to Rs 45,000 at the end of the first year of their business.
There is no partnership deed. Therefore, the following provisions of the Indian Partnership Act are to be applied for settling the dispute.
(i) No interest on capital is payable to any partner. Therefore, Ram is not entitled to interest on capital.
(ii) No remuneration is payable to any partner. Therefore, Rahim is not entitled to any salary.
(iii) Interest on loan is payable @ 6% p.a. Therefore, Karim is to get interest @ 6% p.a. on Rs 2,000 instead of 12%.
(iv) The profits should be distributed equally.
Profit and Loss Appropriation Account for the year ended…
A and B start business on 1st January, 2016, with capitals of Rs 30,000 and Rs 20,000. According to the Partnership Deed, B is entitled to a salary of Rs 500 per month and interest is to be allowed on opening capitals at 6% per annum. The remaining profits are to be distributed amongst the partners in the ratio of 5:3. During 2016 the firm earned a profit, before charging salary to B and interest on capital amounting to Rs 25,000. During the year A withdrew Rs 8,000 and B withdrew Rs 10,000 for domestic purposes.
Prepare Profit and Loss Appropriation Account.
Profit and Loss Appropriation Account for the year ended 31-Dec-16
NOTE: Since date of drawing & rate of interest on drawing is not given, it is assumed drawings are made on last day of year. Let us also learn the preparation of capital accounts of partners with the help of same illustration of partnership firm consisting of partners A and B.
A and B start business on 1st January, 2016, with capitals of Rs 30,000 and Rs 20,000. According to the Partnership Deed, B is entitled to a salary of Rs 500 per month and interest is to be allowed on opening capitals at 6% per annum. The remaining profits are to be distributed amongst the partners in the ratio of 5:3. During 2016, the firm earned a profit, before charging salary to B and interest on capital amounting to Rs 25,000. During the year A withdrew Rs 8,000 and B withdrew Rs 10,000 for domestic purposes.
Prepare Capital Accounts of Partners A and B.
A’s Capital Account
B’s Capital Account
1.9 FIXED AND FLUCTUATING CAPITAL
You have seen in the above example that the Capital Account of A has changed from Rs 30,000 at the beginning to Rs 33,800 and B’s Capital A/c from Rs 20,000 to Rs 23,200. This is because we have made entries in respect of interest, salary, profit earned during the year and money taken out by the partners in the Capital Account itself. If the Capital Accounts are prepared on this basis, capitals are said to be fluctuating. Some firms, however prefer to continue to show the Capital Accounts of the partners at the same old figure. This means that no entry is to be made in the Capital Account in respect of interest, salary, profit and drawings etc. A separate account is to be opened for this purpose. This account is known as the Current Account or even as Drawings Account. Under this system interest on capital if allowed, should be calculated only on the amount of the fixed capital. If the capital Accounts are prepared on this basis, capitals are said to be fixed.
Thus, there are two methods of accounting –
i) Fixed capital method and
ii) Fluctuating capital method.
In Fixed capital method, generally initial capital contributions by the partners are credited to partners’ capital accounts and all subsequent transactions and events are dealt with through current accounts, Unless a decision is taken to change it, initial capital account balance is not changed.
In Fluctuating capital method, no current account is maintained. All such transactions and events are passed through capital accounts. Naturally, capital account balance of the partners fluctuates every time. So in fixed capital method a fixed capital balance is maintained over a period of time while in fluctuating capital method capital account balances fluctuate all the time.
1.9.1 Interest on Capital:
A partner is not entitled to interest on his capital as a matter of right. But if there is an agreement, that partner would receive interest on his capital it is paid at the agreed rate only out of profits. Interest on capital is generally calculated on the opening balance and allowance is made for any additions of capital or withdrawals there from during the accounting period.
For interest on capital
Profit and Loss Appropriation Account Dr.
To (Individual) Capital (or Current) Accounts of Partners
Interest is generally allowed on capitals of the partners. Interest on capital of partners is calculated for the relevant period for which the amount of capital has been used in the business. Normally, it is charged for full year on the balance of capital at the beginning of the year unless some fresh capital is introduced during the year. On the additional capital introduced, interest for the relevant period of utilization is calculated. For example, A has Rs 30,000 capital in the beginning of the year and introduces Rs 10,000 during the year. If rate of interest on capital is 20 % p.a., interest on A’s capital is calculated as follows:
In case of fixed capital accounts, interest is calculated on the balance of capital accounts only and no interest is payable / chargeable on the balance of current accounts.
Net loss and Interest on Capital: Subject to contract between the partners, interest on capitals is to be provided out of profits only. Thus in case of loss, no interest is provided. But in case of insufficient profits (i.e., net profit less than the amount of interest on capital), the amount of prot is distributed in the ratio of capital as partners get profit by way of interest on capital only.
1. Shilpa and Sanju are partners with a capital of Rs 1,00,000 and Rs 1,60,000 on January 1,2016 respectively. Shilpa introduced additional capital of Rs 30,000 on July 1, 2016 and another Rs 20,000 on October 31,2016. Calculate interest on capital for the year ending 2016. The rate of interest is 9% p.a.
Interest on Capital (Shilpa):
On Rs 1,00,000 for 12 month @ 9% = 1,00,000 × 9/100 × 12/12 = Rs 9,000
On Rs 30,000 for 6 month @ 9% = 30,000 × 9/100 × 6/12 = Rs 1,350
On Rs 20,000 for 2 month @ 9% = 20,000 × 9/100 × 2/12 = Rs 300
Total interest on shilpa capital = Rs 9,000 + Rs 1350 + Rs 300 = Rs 10,650
By product method
Interest on capital 14,20,000 × 09/100 × 1/12 = Rs 10,650
Interest on Capital (Sanju):
On Rs 1,60,000 for 12 month @ 9% = 1,60,000 × 9/100 × 12/12 = Rs 14,400
By product method: = 1,60,000 × 12 = 19,20,000
1.9.2 Interest on Drawings
Sometimes interest is not only allowed on the capitals, but is also charged on drawings. In such a case, interest will be charged according to the time that elapses between the taking out of the money and the end of the year.
Method 1: Product Method: When Unequal amount is withdrawn at dierent time period.
Suppose X, a partner, has drawn the following sum of money –
Accounts are closed on 31st December every year. Interest is chargeable on drawings at 6% per annum. The interest on X’s drawings will be calculated as shown below:
Alternatively, it can be calculated as follows:
Interest on Rs 13,800 for one month at 6% per annum is Rs 69.
If the dates on which amounts are drawn are not given, the student will do well to charge interest for six months on the whole of the amount on the assumption that the money was drawn evenly through out the year. In the above example, the total drawings come to Rs 2,300; and at 6% for 6 months, the interest comes to Rs 69. The entry to record interest on drawings is- debit the Capital Account of the partner concerned (or his Current Account if the capital is fixed) and credit the Profit and Loss Appropriation Account.
If withdrawals are made evenly in the beginning of each month, interest can be calculated easily for the whole of the amount of 6-1/2 months; if withdrawals are made at the end of each month, interest should be calculated for 5-1/2 months. If withdrawals are mode at the beginning of each quarter, interest can be calculated by Total drawings × Rate × 100 × 7.5/12.
However, if withdrawals are at end of each quarter, the formula : Total drawings × Rate × 100 × 4.5/12 will appy.
1.9.3 Guarantee of Minimum Profit
Sometimes, one partner can enjoy the right to have minimum amount of profit in a year as per the terms of the partnership agreement. In such case, allocation of profit is done in a normal way if the share of partner, who has been guaranteed minimum profit, is more than the amount of guaranteed profit. However, if share of the partner is less than the guaranteed amount, he takes minimum profit and the excess of guaranteed share of profit over the actual share is borne by the remaining partners as per the agreement.
There are three possibilities as far as share of deficiency by other partners is concerned. These are as follows:
If the question is silent about the nature of guarantee, the burden of guarantee is borne by the remaining partners in their mutual profit sharing ratio.
1.9.4 Capital ratio
Partners may agree to share profits and losses in the capital ratio. When capitals are fixed, profits will be shared in the ratio of given capitals. But if capitals are fluctuating and partners introduce or withdraw capitals during the year, the capitals for the purpose of ratio would be determined with reference to time on the basis of weighted average method. Example
A and B formed a partnership with a capital contribution of Rs50,000 and Rs 30,000 respectively on 1st January 2016. The profits were to be shared in the capital ratio. Calculate the capital ratio on the basis of following details:
Total Capital Employed by A for one Month
Total Capital Employed by B for one Month
On the basis of products of both the partners, the capital ratio between A and B is 64: 40 or 8 : 5.
A and B are partners sharing profits and losses in the ratio of their effective capital. They had Rs 1,00,000 and Rs 60,000 respectively in their Capital Accounts as on 1st January, 2016. A introduced a further capital of Rs 10,000 on 1st April, 2016 and another Rs 5,000 on 1st July, 2016. On 30th September, 2016 A withdrew Rs 40,000.
On 1st July, 2016, B introduced further capital of Rs 30,000.
The partners drew the following amounts in anticipation of profit.
A drew Rs 1,000 per month at the end of each month beginning from January, 2016. B drew Rs 1,000 on 30th June, and Rs 5,000 on 30th September, 2016.
12% p.a. interest on capital is allowable and 10% p.a. interest on drawings is chargeable. Date of closing 31.12.2016. Calculate:
(a) Profit-sharing ratio;
(b) Interest on capital; and
(c) Interest on drawings.
(a) Calculation of Effective Capital
(b) Calculation of Interest on Capital
A = Rs 12,00,000 x 12/100 x 1/12 = Rs 12,000 B = Rs 9,00,000 x 12/100 x 1/12 = Rs 9,000
(c) Calculation of Interest on Drawings
Ram and Rahim start business with capital of Rs 50,000 and Rs 30,000 on 1st January, 2016. Rahim is entitled to a salary of Rs 400 per month. Interest is allowed on capitals and is charged on drawings at 6% per annum. Profits are to be distributed equally after the above noted adjustments. During the year, Ram withdrew Rs 8,000 and Rahim withdrew Rs 10,000. The profit for the year before allowing for the terms of the Partnership Deed came to Rs 30,000. Assuming the capitals to be fixed, prepare the Profit and Loss Appropriation Account and the Capital and Current Accounts relating to the partners.
Profit & Loss (Appropriation) Account
With the help of same information given in illustration 6, let us prepare the Capital and Current Accounts of Ram and Rahim
Ram’s Capital Account
Rahim’s Capital Account
Ram’s Current Account
Rahim’s Current Account
A and B were partners in a firm sharing profits and losses in the ratio of 3:2. They admit C for 1/6th share in profits and guaranteed that his share of profits will not be less than Rs 250,00,000. Total profits of the firm for the year ended 31st March, 2017 were Rs 900,00,000. Calculate share of profits for each partner when:
1. Guarantee is given by firm.
2. Guarantee is given by A
3. Guarantee is given by A and B equally
Case1.When Guarantee is given by firm.
Profit and Loss Appropriation Account
For the year ending on 31st March, 2017
Case2. When Guarantee is given by A
Profit and Loss Appropriation Account
For the year ending on 31st March, 2017
Case3. When Guarantee is given by A and B equally.
Profit and Loss Appropriation Account
Profit and Loss Appropriation Account For the year ending on 31st March, 2017