VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q. 1. What are microorganisms or microbes?
Ans. The organisms which are not seen with our naked eyes are called microorganisms.
Q. 2. Give two examples of microorganisms.
Ans. Bacteria and Fungi.
Q. 3. What are the four major groups of microorganisms?
Ans. (i) Bacteria (ii) Fungi
(iii) Protozoa (iv) Algae.
Q. 4. Name two habitats of microorganisms.
Ans. (i) Soil
Q. 5. What are viruses?
Ans. Very tiny microscopic organisms which reproduce only inside the cells of host organisms are called viruses.
Q. 6. Write the names of some diseases caused by virus.
Ans. Influenza (Flu), Polio and Chicken Pox are some diseases caused by viruses.
Q. 7. Name some diseases caused by Protozoans.
Ans. Dysentery and Malaria.
Q. 8. Mention some diseases caused by bacteria.
Ans. Typhoid and Tuberculosis (TB) are the bacterial diseases.
Q. 9. Name two single-celled microorganisms.
Ans. (i) Bacteria (ii) Some algae.
Q . 10. Name two multicellular microorganisms.
Ans. (i) Fungi (ii) Algae.
Q . 11. Mention two groups of microorganisms which live in colonies.
Ans. (i) Bacteria (ii) Fungi
Q . 12. What are the two types of microorganisms on the basis of their functions?
Ans. (i) Useful microorganisms. (ii) Harmful microorganisms.
Q . 13. Name the microorganisms which promote the formation of curd.
Ans. Bacterium Lactobacillus promotes the formation of curd.
Q . 14. What is the main ingredient of rava idlis and bhaturas?
Q . 15. What is fermentation?
Ans. The process of conversion of sugar into alcohol is known as fermentation.
Q. 16. Name the scientist who discovered fermentation.
Ans. Louis Pasteur discovered fermentation in 1857.
Q . 17. What are antibiotics?
Ans. The medicines which kill or stop the growth of the disease‑causing microorganisms are called antibiotics.
Q . 18. Who discovered antibiotics?
Ans. Alexander Fleming in 1929.
Q . 19. Name some antibiotics.
Ans. Streptomycin, Tetracycline and Erythromycin are some antibiotics.
Q . 20. What do you mean by the antibodies?
Ans. When a disease carrying microbe enters in the body, the body produces a substance to fight the invader, these are called antibodies.
Q . 21. What is vaccine?
Ans. The medicine used to protect the children from several diseases is called vaccine.
Q . 22. What do you mean by vaccination?
Ans. The process of providing vaccine is called vaccination.
Q . 23. Name a popular vaccination programme.
Ans. Pulse Polio Programme.
Q . 24. Who discovered the vaccine for Small Pox?
Ans. Edward Jenner in 1798.
Q. 25. What do you mean by nitrogen fixation?
Ans. The process by which atmospheric nitrogen is converted into nitrates by the action of microorganisms is called nitrogen fixation.
Q . 26. What are pathogens?
Ans. The disease‑causing microorganisms are called pathogens.
Q . 27. How do pathogens enter in our body?
Ans. The pathogens enter in our body through air, water and food.
Q . 28. Name two communicable diseases.
Ans. Cholera and Chicken Pox.
Q . 29. What are carriers of disease-causing microbes?
Ans. The insects and animals which help in the transmission of the pathogens from source to the persons are called carriers of disease‑causing microbes.
Q . 30. Which is the carrier of dengue virus?
Ans. Female Aedes mosquito.
Q . 31. Why should we not let water collect anywhere?
Ans. All mosquitoes breed in water. Hence we should not let water collect anywhere.
Q . 32. Name a disease which is common in human and other animals.
Q . 33. Name the pathogen of anthrax.
Ans. Bacillus anthracis.
Q . 34. Write the name of viral disease in cattles.
Ans. Foot and Mouth disease.
Q . 35. What do you mean by food preservation?
Ans. Process to prevent food material from spoilage by the action of microbes is called preservation.
Q . 36. What are preservatives?
Ans. The chemicals which are used to check the growth of microorganisms are called preservatives.
Q . 37. Name some preservatives.
Ans. Sugar, salt, oils and vinegar are some common preservatives.
Q . 38. Which microorganism are called nitrogen fixing bacteria?
Ans. Rhizobium bacteria.
Q . 39. Where do Rhizobium bacteria commonly live?
Ans. Rhizobium bacteria live in the root nodules of leguminous plants
Q . 40. What do you mean by symbiotic relationship?
Ans. The relationship between two organisms in which both the organisms are benefitted is called symbiotic relationship.
Q . 41. Mention the amount of nitrogen gas in atmosphere.