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Q.1. State True (T) or False (F).
(i) Many of these cities were divided into two or more parts. True
(ii) The city of Lothal stood beside a tributary of the Ganga, in Gujarat. False
(iii) Great Bath was made water-tight with a layer of natural tar. True
(iv) Usually in the Harappan cities, the part to the east was larger but lower and is called the upper town. False
(v) The Harappans also made seals out of stone. True
(vi) All the raw materials that the Harappans used were available locally. False
Q.2. When and where cotton cultivation has started?
Cotton cultivation started at Mehrgarh about 7000 years ago.
Q.3. Discuss the term ‘Citadel’.
Many of these cities were divided into two or more parts. Usually, the part to the west was smaller but higher. Archaeologists describe this as the citadel.
Q.4. What were the objects in Harappan cities made of?
Objects in Harappan cities made of out of stone, shell and metal.
Q.5. How bricks were arranged to build walls in Harappan cities?
The bricks were laid in an interlocking pattern and that made the walls strong.
Q.6. Explain the term sealing.
After a bag was closed or tied, a layer of wet clay was applied on the knot, and the seal was pressed on it. The impression of the seal is known as a sealing.
Q.7. List some uses of ‘Faience’.
Faience was used to make beads, bangles, earrings, and tiny vessels.
Q.8. Why plough was used?
The plough was used to dig the earth for turning the soil and planting seeds.
Q.9. What types of houses was found in the earlier cities?
Generally, houses were either one or two storeys high, with rooms built around a courtyard. Most houses had a separate bathing area, and some had wells to supply water
Q.10. Where fire altars have been discovered?
Fire altars have been discovered in Kalibangan and Lothal.
Q.11. Name the cities which had elaborate store houses.
Some cities like Mohenjodaro, Harappa, and Lothal had elaborate store houses.
Q.12. What were the seals used for?
Seals may have been used to stamp bags or packets containing goods that were sent from one place to another.
Q.13. Fill in the blanks.
(i) Great Bath has been discovered in Mohenjodaro.
(ii) People living in the countryside grew crops and reared animals.
(iii) The alloy of tin and copper is called bronze.
(iv) Usually in the Harappan cities, the part to the west was smaller but higher and was known as citadel.
(v) Gold and silver were used to make ornaments and vessels.
(vi) Sealings are the impression of seals on clay.
Q.14. Which two metals form the alloy bronze?
Tin and copper forms the alloy bronze.
Q.15. What do you understand by ‘Raw Material’?
Raw materials are substances that are either found naturally (such as wood, or ores of metals) or produced by farmers or herders.
Q.16. Make a list of what the Harappans ate.
Wheat, barley, pulses, peas, rice, sesame, linseed, mustard and fruits.
Q.17. Name the terracotta toys have been found during excavations.
Toy cart and Toy plough
Q.18. How old are the Harappan cities?
Harappan cities were developed about 4700 years ago.
Q.19. Who is a specialist?
A specialist is a person who is trained to do only one kind of work, for example, cutting stone, or polishing beads, or carving seals.