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Worksheet Solutions: Psychological Disorders | Psychology Class 12 - Humanities/Arts PDF Download

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Q1: Deviance: Psychological disorders are identified by behaviors that are __________, odd, or peculiar.
Ans:
 atypical
Deviance: Psychological disorders are identified by behaviors that are atypical, odd, or peculiar - behaviors that deviate from the norm.

Q2: Dysfunction: These behaviors interfere with an individual's ability to function __________.
Ans:
 normally
Dysfunction: These behaviors interfere with an individual's ability to function normally - disrupting their everyday activities and functioning.

Q3: __________ refers to behavior that is uncomfortable and distressing for both oneself and others.
Ans:
 Distress
Distress: Distress refers to behavior that is uncomfortable and distressing for both oneself and others, causing emotional or psychological discomfort.

Q4: Danger pertains to behaviors that are __________ or harmful to the individual or others.
Ans: 
risky
Danger: Danger pertains to behaviors that are risky or harmful to the individual or others, posing threats to personal safety or well-being.

Q5: The __________ model emphasizes that both normal and abnormal human behavior is a result of psychological forces.
Ans: 
Psychodynamic
The Psychodynamic Model emphasizes that both normal and abnormal human behavior is a result of psychological forces, including subconscious drives and conflicts.

Q6: In the Behavioral Model, abnormal behavior results from __________ ways of behaving that are learned.
Ans: 
maladaptive
In the Behavioral Model, abnormal behavior results from maladaptive ways of behaving that are learned, indicating behaviors that are counterproductive and harmful.

Q7: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by impaired __________, communication, and restricted interests or repetitive behavior patterns.
Ans:
 interaction, communication
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by impaired interaction, communication, and restricted interests or repetitive behavior patterns, affecting social and communication skills.

Q8: __________ involves excessive gaming behavior that leads to impairment in personal, social, and occupational functioning.
Ans: 
Internet gaming disorder
Internet Gaming Disorder involves excessive gaming behavior that leads to impairment in personal, social, and occupational functioning, reflecting problematic gaming habits.

Q9: Bipolar I Disorder involves manic episodes that last at least __________ days or require hospitalization.
Ans: 
7
 Bipolar I Disorder involves manic episodes that last at least 7 days or require hospitalization, indicating a severe form of bipolar disorder.

Q10: Substance use disorders are characterized by compulsive substance use, __________, withdrawal symptoms, and impaired functioning.
Ans:
 tolerance
Substance use disorders are characterized by compulsive substance use, tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, and impaired functioning, indicating addictive behaviors leading to physical and psychological dependence.

Assertion and Reason Based

Q1: Assertion: The Humanistic-Existential Model views human beings positively.
Reason: It believes that individuals are inherently cooperative, positive, and capable of self-actualization.
(a) Both Assertion and Reason are true and Reason is the correct explanation of Assertion.
(b) Both Assertion and Reason are true but Reason is not the correct explanation of Assertion.
(c) Assertion is true, but Reason is false.
(d) Both Assertion and Reason are false.

Ans: (a)
The Humanistic-Existential Model does indeed view human beings positively, emphasizing their potential for growth, self-actualization, and positive qualities. The reason provided correctly explains the assertion, stating that individuals are seen as inherently cooperative, positive, and capable of self-actualization within this model.

Q2: Assertion: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) involves obsessive behavior and compulsive behavior.
Reason: Obsessive behavior refers to the inability to cease thinking about a specific behavior or thought.
(a) Both Assertion and Reason are true and Reason is the correct explanation of Assertion.
(b) Both Assertion and Reason are true but Reason is not the correct explanation of Assertion.
(c) Assertion is true, but Reason is false.
(d) Both Assertion and Reason are false.

Ans: (a)
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is characterized by both obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors. Obsessive behavior involves persistent, unwanted, and distressing thoughts, while compulsive behavior refers to repetitive actions or mental acts performed to reduce anxiety. The reason correctly explains that obsessive behavior in OCD refers to the inability to stop thinking about a particular thought or behavior, which leads to compulsive actions.

Q3: Assertion: Substance use disorders can lead to significant impairments in personal, social, and occupational functioning.
Reason: Treatment for substance-related disorders often involves medication, therapy, and support groups.
(a) Both Assertion and Reason are true and Reason is the correct explanation of Assertion.
(b) Both Assertion and Reason are true but Reason is not the correct explanation of Assertion.
(c) Assertion is true, but Reason is false.
(d) Both Assertion and Reason are false.

Ans: (a)
Substance use disorders can indeed lead to impairments in various aspects of life, affecting personal, social, and occupational functioning. The reason provided accurately explains that the treatment for substance-related disorders usually involves a combination of medication, therapy, and support groups. These interventions are aimed at addressing the physical, psychological, and social aspects of the disorder.

Q4: Assertion: Separation Anxiety Disorder is characterized by an extreme fear of being separated from individuals with whom an emotional attachment has been formed.
Reason: It mainly affects adults who are overly dependent on their partners for emotional support.
(a) Both Assertion and Reason are true and Reason is the correct explanation of Assertion.
(b) Both Assertion and Reason are true but Reason is not the correct explanation of Assertion.
(c) Assertion is true, but Reason is false.
(d) Both Assertion and Reason are false.

Ans: (c)
Separation Anxiety Disorder is indeed characterized by an intense fear of being separated from individuals to whom an individual has formed strong emotional attachments, especially in childhood. However, it is primarily diagnosed in children and is not limited to adults who are overly dependent on their partners. Separation Anxiety Disorder can significantly impair a person's ability to function independently, causing distress when faced with the prospect of separation from attachment figures.

Q5: Assertion: The Diathesis Stress Model proposes that psychological disorders develop when a diathesis (biological predisposition to the disorder) is triggered by a stressful situation.
Reason: This model suggests that psychological disorders are solely caused by genetic factors.
(a) Both Assertion and Reason are true and Reason is the correct explanation of Assertion.
(b) Both Assertion and Reason are true but Reason is not the correct explanation of Assertion.
(c) Assertion is true, but Reason is false.
(d) Both Assertion and Reason are false.

Ans: (b)
The Diathesis Stress Model posits that psychological disorders result from both genetic or biological predispositions (diathesis) and environmental stressors. It does not claim that psychological disorders are solely caused by genetic factors; rather, it emphasizes the interaction between genetic vulnerabilities and stressful life events. Therefore, while both the assertion and reason are true, the reason does not correctly explain the assertion as it oversimplifies the model's complexity.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Q1: Explain the 4Ds used to define abnormality.
Ans: 
The 4Ds used to define abnormality are Dysfunction, Distress, Deviance, and Danger.

Q2: Name one ancient Greek philosopher who contributed to the organismic approach.
Ans: 
Plato.

Q3: What did Johann Weyer suggest about psychic disorders during the Renaissance period?
Ans: 
Johann Weyer suggested that psychic disorders were not caused by demonic possession but rather had natural and psychological origins.

Q4: Mention two neurotransmitters and the psychological disorders associated with their abnormal activity.
Ans: 
Two neurotransmitters are serotonin and dopamine. Abnormal activity of serotonin is associated with depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Abnormal activity of dopamine is associated with schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease.

Q5: Define Panic Disorder.
Ans:
Panic Disorder is a psychological disorder characterized by sudden and recurrent panic attacks, which are intense episodes of fear and discomfort accompanied by physical symptoms such as heart palpitations, shortness of breath, and dizziness.

Q6: What is Dissociative Identity Disorder?
Ans:
Dissociative Identity Disorder, formerly known as Multiple Personality Disorder, is a psychological disorder characterized by the presence of two or more distinct personality states or identities within an individual.

Q7: List two symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder.
Ans:
Two symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder are persistent feelings of sadness, emptiness, or hopelessness, and loss of interest or pleasure in activities that were once enjoyable.

Q8: What characterizes Bipolar II Disorder?
Ans: 
Bipolar II Disorder is characterized by recurrent episodes of major depression and hypomanic episodes, which are less severe than the manic episodes seen in Bipolar I Disorder.

Q9: Name a neurodevelopmental disorder related to communication difficulties.
Ans:
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

Q10: Define Anorexia Nervosa.
Ans: Anorexia Nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by an intense fear of gaining weight, a distorted body image, and self-starvation leading to severe weight loss.

Short Answer Type Questions

Q1: Discuss the impact of the Middle Ages on the perception of mental health issues and how it led to contemporary psychodynamic theories.
Ans: The historical background of understanding psychological disorders includes the organismic approach introduced by Ancient Greek philosophers, the association of mental health issues with demons during the Middle Ages, the focus on humanism and curiosity about behavior during the Renaissance period, and the growth of the scientific method during the Age of Reason and Enlightenment. This period also saw the emergence of various psychological models.

Q2: Explain the role of neurotransmitters in the development of psychological disorders, providing examples.
Ans: Biological factors like faulty genes, endocrine imbalances, and psychological and interpersonal factors such as maladaptive family structures and severe stress can contribute to abnormal behavior.

Q3: Describe the major types of bipolar disorders and their distinguishing features.
Ans: Major types of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders include Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Body Dysmorphic Disorder, Hoarding Disorder, Trichotillomania (Hair-Pulling Disorder), and Excoriation (Skin-Picking) Disorder. These disorders involve persistent, unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive behaviors or mental acts (compulsions).

Q4: Discuss the factors contributing to the development of Substance Related and Addictive Disorders.
Ans: Major Depressive Disorder is characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, disinterest, sleep disturbances, changes in appetite and weight, and irritability. Risk factors include age, genetics, significant life events, and lack of social support.

Q5: Explain the concept of Dissociative Identity Disorder and its roots in traumatic childhood experiences.
Ans: Bipolar I Disorder involves manic episodes that last at least 7 days or require hospitalization, with depressive episodes lasting for at least 2 weeks. Bipolar II Disorder has less severe manic episodes (hypomania) and depressive episodes lasting for at least 2 weeks. Cyclothymic Disorder involves milder mood swings lasting for at least 2 years.

Q6: Discuss the symptoms and impact of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on children’s daily functioning.
Ans: Schizophrenia symptoms include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thinking and speech, abnormal motor behavior, and negative symptoms like lack of motivation. It is believed to be caused by genetic, environmental, and neurological factors.

Q7: Describe the main types of feeding and eating disorders and their characteristics.
Ans: Major neurodevelopmental disorders include Autism Spectrum Disorder (impaired social interaction and communication), Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity), Specific Learning Disorder (difficulty in academic skills), Intellectual Disability (below-average intellectual functioning), Communication Disorders (difficulty in communication), and Motor Disorders (problems with movement and coordination).

Q8: Explain the role of the DSM-5 and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) in classifying psychological disorders.
Ans: Feeding and Eating Disorders include Anorexia Nervosa (intense fear of gaining weight), Bulimia Nervosa (binge eating followed by purging), Binge-Eating Disorder (binge eating without purging), Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (lack of interest in eating or avoidance of certain foods), Pica (eating non-food items), and Rumination Disorder (regurgitating food after eating).

Long Answer Type Questions

Q1: Explain the various models that offer explanations for psychological disorders, including the Psychodynamic, Behavioral, Cognitive, Humanistic-Existential, Sociocultural, and Diathesis Stress Models.
Ans: Psychological disorders are complex conditions that impact an individual's thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. Several models have been proposed to explain the development and maintenance of these disorders. Let's discuss some of the major models:

  • Psychodynamic Model: The psychodynamic model, developed by Sigmund Freud, suggests that psychological disorders arise from unresolved conflicts and unconscious processes. According to this model, early childhood experiences and unconscious desires influence a person's behavior and mental health. Techniques such as free association and dream analysis are used in psychodynamic therapy to bring these unconscious conflicts into awareness.
  • Behavioral Model: The behavioral model posits that psychological disorders are learned through conditioning and reinforcement processes. It emphasizes the role of observable behaviors and the environment in shaping mental health. This model suggests that maladaptive behaviors can be unlearned and replaced with healthier alternatives through techniques like behavior therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT).
  • Cognitive Model: The cognitive model focuses on how thoughts, beliefs, and interpretations contribute to psychological disorders. It suggests that distorted or negative thinking patterns can lead to emotional distress and dysfunctional behaviors. Cognitive therapy aims to identify and modify these maladaptive thought patterns, promoting more positive and adaptive thinking.
  • Humanistic-Existential Model: The humanistic-existential model emphasizes personal growth, self-actualization, and the search for meaning in life. It suggests that psychological disorders occur when individuals are unable to meet their needs for self-fulfillment and authenticity. Humanistic therapies, such as person-centered therapy, aim to provide a supportive and empathetic environment for individuals to explore their feelings and values.
  • Sociocultural Model: The sociocultural model emphasizes the influence of social, cultural, and environmental factors on the development of psychological disorders. It recognizes that societal norms, cultural expectations, and social inequalities can play a significant role in shaping mental health. This model highlights the importance of considering cultural context and social support in understanding and treating psychological disorders.
  • Diathesis Stress Model: The diathesis stress model proposes that psychological disorders result from the interaction between predisposing factors (diathesis) and environmental stressors. It suggests that individuals with a vulnerability or genetic predisposition (diathesis) are more likely to develop a disorder when exposed to stressful life events. This model emphasizes the interplay between biological, psychological, and environmental factors in the onset of psychological disorders.

It is important to note that these models are not mutually exclusive, and psychological disorders are often influenced by a combination of factors from multiple models. The field of psychology continues to evolve, and researchers and clinicians utilize these models to better understand, diagnose, and treat psychological disorders.

Q2: Discuss the major types of anxiety disorders, their symptoms, and their impact on individuals' lives.
Ans: Anxiety disorders are characterized by excessive and persistent worry, fear, and anxiety that significantly impair an individual's daily functioning. Let's explore some of the major types of anxiety disorders, along with their symptoms and impact:

  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): GAD is characterized by chronic and excessive worry about various aspects of life, such as work, health, and relationships. Symptoms include restlessness, irritability, difficulty concentrating, muscle tension, and sleep disturbances. GAD can lead to difficulties in relationships, work performance, and overall quality of life.
  • Panic Disorder: Panic disorder involves recurrent and unexpected panic attacks, which are intense episodes of fear accompanied by physical symptoms like heart palpitations, shortness of breath, dizziness, and chest pain. Individuals with panic disorder often develop a fear of having additional panic attacks, leading to avoidance behaviors and significant disruptions in daily life.
  • Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD): SAD is characterized by an intense fear of social situations and a fear of being judged or humiliated by others. Individuals with SAD may experience extreme self-consciousness, blushing, sweating, trembling, and avoidance of social interactions. This disorder can significantly impact personal relationships, academic or professional performance, and social functioning.
  • Specific Phobias: Specific phobias involve an intense fear and avoidance of a particular object, situation, or activity. Common phobias include fear of heights, spiders, flying, or enclosed spaces. When encountering the feared stimulus, individuals may experience panic-like symptoms and go to great lengths to avoid the phobic trigger. Specific phobias can limit an individual's daily activities and cause distress.
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD): OCD is characterized by intrusive, unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive behaviors or mental acts (compulsions) performed to alleviate anxiety. Individuals with OCD often engage in rituals or repetitive behaviors, such as excessive handwashing, checking, or organizing. OCD can be time-consuming and interfere with daily functioning and relationships.

Anxiety disorders can have a profound impact on individuals' lives. They can lead to significant distress, impaired social and occupational functioning, and reduced quality of life. Relationships may suffer due to avoidance behaviors or excessive worry, and academic or professional performance may be hindered. Physical health can also be affected, with symptoms such as headaches, gastrointestinal issues, and sleep disturbances commonly experienced. Early identification and appropriate treatment can help individuals manage their symptoms and improve their overall well-being.

Q3: Describe the different types of Dissociative Disorders, their characteristics, and potential causes.
Ans: Dissociative disorders are a group of psychological disorders characterized by disruptions in memory, consciousness, identity, or perception. Let's explore the different types of dissociative disorders, their characteristics, and potential causes:

  • Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID): DID, previously known as multiple personality disorder, involves the presence of two or more distinct personality states or identities within an individual. These different identities may have their own memories, behaviors, and characteristics. Individuals with DID often experience memory gaps, amnesia, and a sense of detachment from their own actions. The exact causes of DID are unclear, but severe trauma, such as childhood abuse, is believed to be a contributing factor.
  • Dissociative Amnesia: Dissociative amnesia is characterized by the inability to recall important personal information, usually related to a traumatic or stressful event. The memory loss is typically selective and not due to physical factors. Individuals may experience gaps in their memory surrounding the event or their identity. Dissociative amnesia is often associated with high levels of distress and can be caused by traumatic experiences or extreme stress.
  • Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder: Depersonalization/derealization disorder involves recurrent episodes of feeling detached from oneself (depersonalization) or the surrounding environment (derealization). Individuals may experience a sense of being an outside observer of their own body or feel like the world is unreal or distorted. These experiences can be distressing and impact daily functioning. The exact causes of depersonalization/derealization disorder are unknown, but it may be related to trauma, stress, or anxiety.

Potential causes of dissociative disorders are often linked to traumatic experiences, particularly during childhood. Severe physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, as well as neglect, can contribute to the development of dissociative disorders. The dissociation serves as a defense mechanism, allowing individuals to escape from overwhelming emotions or memories. However, it is essential to note that not all individuals who experience trauma develop dissociative disorders, suggesting that additional factors contribute to their development.

Q4: Explain the concept of Substance Use Disorders, including the types of substances involved, the diagnostic criteria, and the potential consequences of these disorders.
Ans: Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) refer to a range of conditions characterized by the recurrent and problematic use of substances, leading to significant impairment or distress. Let's explore the concept of SUDs, including the types of substances involved, the diagnostic criteria, and the potential consequences:

Types of Substances: SUDs can involve various substances, including alcohol, tobacco, opioids, stimulants, hallucinogens, cannabis, and sedatives. These substances can have psychoactive effects, altering mood, perception, cognition, and behavior. The specific substance used influences the symptoms, health risks, and treatment approaches associated with the disorder.

Diagnostic Criteria: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) provides diagnostic criteria for Substance Use Disorders. These criteria include:

  • Impaired control: The individual struggles to control their substance use, leading to consuming larger amounts or for more extended periods than intended.
  • Social impairment: Substance use disrupts social, occupational, or educational functioning. It may cause relationship problems, decreased performance, or withdrawal from social activities.
  • Risky use: The individual continues to use substances despite being aware of the physical or psychological problems caused or exacerbated by their use.
  • Pharmacological criteria: Tolerance (needing increased amounts of the substance to achieve the desired effect) and withdrawal (experiencing physical or psychological symptoms when substance use is reduced or stopped) are present.

Potential Consequences: Substance Use Disorders can have severe consequences, affecting physical health, mental well-being, relationships, and overall functioning. Some potential consequences include:

  • Physical health problems: Substance abuse can lead to various health issues, such as liver damage (in the case of alcohol), respiratory problems (in the case of tobacco), and overdose or organ damage (in the case of opioids).
  • Mental health disorders: Substance abuse increases the risk of developing mental health disorders, such as depression, anxiety, psychosis, or cognitive impairments.
  • Impaired cognitive functioning: Prolonged substance abuse can lead to cognitive deficits, memory problems, attention difficulties, and impaired decision-making abilities.
  • Social and occupational problems: Substance abuse can strain relationships, lead to decreased work or academic performance, and cause legal issues or financial difficulties.
  • Risky behaviors: Substance abuse often co-occurs with risky behaviors, such as unsafe sexual practices, driving under the influence, or engaging in criminal activities.
  • Dependence and addiction: Continued substance abuse can lead to dependence, where the individual experiences withdrawal symptoms upon cessation. Addiction involves the compulsive use of substances despite negative consequences.

It is important to note that early intervention and appropriate treatment can help individuals with Substance Use Disorders recover and improve their overall well-being. Treatment approaches may include detoxification, therapy (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy), support groups, and medication-assisted treatments.

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