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Q.1. What do you understand by monarchy?
Monarchy is a form of government in which final authority rested with the King.
Q.2. What is a "State"?
The State refers to a political institution that represents a sovereign people who occupy a definite territory.
Q.3. What is universal adult franchise?
Universal Adult Franchise means that the right to vote should be given to all adult citizens without the discrimination of caste, class, colour, religion or gender.
Q.4. Explain Right to Freedom of Religion.
Right to Freedom of Religion - Religious freedom is provided to all citizens. Every person has the right to practise, profess and propagate the religion of their choice.
Q.5. Define the term constitution.
In large societies in which different communities of people live together, the rules are formulated through consensus, and in modern countries this consensus is usually available in written form. A written document in which we find such rules is called a Constitution.
Q.6. Mention the key features of the Indian Constitution.
The key features of the Indian constitution are:-
(ii) Parliamentary Form of Government
(iii) Separation of Powers
(iv) Fundamental Rights
Q.7. What are the functions of the three main organs of the government?
According to the Constitution, there are three organs of government. These are the legislature, the executive and the judiciary.
(i) The legislature refers to our elected representatives.
(ii) The executive is a smaller group of people who are responsible for implementing laws and running the government.
(iii) The judiciary refers to the system of courts in this country.
Q.8. Which Fundamental Rights will the following situations violate?
(i) If a 13-year old child is working in a factory manufacturing carpets.
(ii) If a politician in one state decides to not allow labourers from other states to work in his state.
(iii) If a group of people are not given permission to open a Telugu-medium school in Kerala.
(iv) If the government decides not to promote an officer of the armed forces for being a woman.
(i) Right against Exploitation
(ii) Right to Freedom
(iii) Cultural and Educational Rights
(iv) Right to Equality
Q.9. In each of the following situations, identify the minority. Write one reason why you think it is important to respect the views of the minority in each of these situations.
(i) In a school with 30 teachers, 20 of them are male.
(ii) In a city, 5 per cent of the population are Buddhists.
(iii) In a factory mess for all employees, 80 per cent are vegetarians.
(iv) In a class of 50 students, 40 belong to more well-off families.
(i) Female teachers are in the minority - It is important to respect the views of the minority so that they do not feel left out or underpowered by majority.
(ii) Buddhists are in the minority - It is important to respect the views of the minority because every individual has the right to follow the religion of his choice.
(iii) Non – vegetarians are in the minority – It is important to respect the views of the minority because the food a person eats is his personal wish and so he should have the freedom to eat what he wants.
(iv) The under privileged are in minority – It is important to respect the views of the minority because citizens cannot be discriminated on the bases rich or poor.
Q.10. What is the importance of constitution?
Importance of constitution
(i) A Constitution helps serve as a set of rules and principles that all persons in a country can agree upon as the basis of the way in which they want the country to be governed.
(ii) The Constitution often lays down rules that guard against this misuse of authority by our political leaders.
(iii) Constitution ensures that a dominant group does not use its power against other, less powerful people or groups.
(iv) The Constitution helps to protect us against certain decisions that we might take that could have an adverse effect on the larger principles that the country believes in.
Q.11. What are the factors the drafting committee had to take into consideration while drafting the constitution?
The country was made up of several different communities who spoke different languages, belonged to different religions, and had distinct cultures. Also, when the Constitution was being written, India was going through considerable turmoil. The partition of the country into India and Pakistan was imminent, some of the Princely States remained undecided about their future, and the socio-economic condition of the vast mass of people appeared dismal. All of these issues played on the minds of the members of the Constituent Assembly as they drafted the Constitution.
Q.12. Discuss the difference between State and Government.
‘Government’ is responsible for administering and enforcing laws. The government can change with elections. The State on the other hand refers to a political institution that represents a sovereign people who occupy a definite territory. Example - the Indian State, the Nepali State etc. The Indian State has a democratic form of government. The government (or the executive) is one part of the State. The State refers to more than just the government and cannot be used interchangeably with it.
Q.13. State the six Fundamentals Rights in the Indian Constitution.
The Fundamental Rights in the Indian Constitution include:
(i) Right to Equality
(ii) Right to Freedom
(iii) Right against Exploitation
(iv) Right to Freedom of Religion
(v) Cultural and Educational Rights
(vi) Right to Constitutional Remedies
Q.14. What is Constitutional Monarchy?
A system of government in which a country is ruled by a king and queen whose power is limited by a constitution.
Example: Until quite recently, Nepal was a monarchy. The previous Constitution of Nepal, which had been adopted in 1990, reflected the fact that the final authority rested with the King.
Q.15. What do you mean by Directive Principles of State Policy?
Directive Principles of State Policy was designed by the members of the Constituent Assembly to ensure greater social and economic reforms and to serve as a guide to the independent Indian State to institute laws and policies that help reduce the poverty of the masses.