1. Verb - The verb is a word that expresses some action, feeling or existence. It tells us something about the subject.
(a) Lions roar. (action)
(b) Boys fly kites. (action)
(c) I feel sorry. (feeling)
(d) Ashoka was a great king. (existence)
2. Main Verbs
All the verbs (shown above in black) ‘roar’, ‘fly’, ‘feel’, and ‘was’, are limited by the number and person of their subjects. Therefore, ‘roar’, ‘fly’, ‘feel’, and ‘was’, are Main Verbs—main verbs are also called Finite Verbs.
3. Verbs are divided in two parts:
(a) Main Verbs (also called lexical verbs)
(b) Helping Verbs (Auxiliaries—Primary and Modals)
All verbs in English except the 24 helping verbs are main verbs.
Look at the chart below :
Main Verbs are also of two kinds:
(i) Finite verbs
(ii) Non-finite verbs
(i) Finite - verbs change their forms according to the person and number of the subject and the tense also.
(a) He reads. I read.
(b) They read. She goes.
(c) I go.
(d) They go.
(ii) Non-finite - verbs do not change their forms according to the number, person or tense of the subject. The infinitives, gerunds and participles are called non-finites.
4. Read the following sentences
(a) Lata sang a song.
(b) I wrote a letter.
(c) Children like sweets.
In each of these sentences the verb takes an object ‘song’, ‘letter’ and ‘sweets’ are objects. A verb that takes an object is called a Transitive Verb. The object usually answers the question what ? Or whom ?
Now look at the following sentences:
(a) Birds fly.
(b) The sun shines.
These verbs do not require objects. They express the actions by themselves and make the sense complete. They are called Intransitive Verbs. Some Verbs can be used both Transitively and Intransitively.
|Verbs Used Intransitively||Verbs Used Transitively|
|1. Birds fly||Boys fly kites|
|2. The horse runs fast||I ran a race|
THE CONJUGATION OF VERBS
To Conjugate a Verb means to give its four Principal forms:
|Past Participle||Present Participle|
If the Past or Past Participle is formed from the Present Tense by changing the Vowel of a Verb.
(a) Take, took, taken and do, did, done
(b) The Verb is said to be a Strong Verb.
(c) If the Verb requires the addition of ‘ed\ ‘cf or ‘f to form their Past and Past
(d) Participles, they are called Weak Verbs as - Finish, finished, finished ; die, died, died and build, built, built.
Group I (Where no ‘n’ is added to the Past Participle)
Group II (Where ‘n’ or ‘ne’ is added to the Past Participle)
Note: Since the Present Participle is only the—ing form of the Present, we are giving below pnly the first three forms.
Group III—Mixed Verbs (Partly Strong and Partly Weak)
Group IV (Conjugation of Weak Verbs)
The Present, Past and Past Participle forms of the following weak Verbs are alike:
The Present and Past Participle forms of certain verbs are alike.
Mark the difference between the following groups of Verbs.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Read the statements given below and choose the correct option
I. Identify as directed:
(i) The transitive verbs:
(a) I read.
(b) The child sleeps
(c) I read a book.
(d) She weeps
Ans. (c) I read a book.
(ii) The Intransitive verbs:
(a) I read a book
(b) She sings a song
(c) She eats.
(d) She eats an apple
Ans. (c) She eats.
(iii) The Direct object:
He told me a story.
(d) Both (i) and (ii)
Ans. (b) Story
(iv) The indirect object:
He told me a story.
Ans. (d) Me
Q.2. Fill in the blanks: The same
(v) She sang _______. (transitive).
(b) very well
(c) a sweet song
(d) both (i) and (iii)
Ans. (c) a sweet song
(vi) She sang (Intransitive).
(b) a sweet song
(d) both (ii) and (iii)
Ans. (c) a sweet song
Q.3. Choose the correct option:
(vii) Transitive use :
(a) The farmer works hard.
(b) The farmer grows wheat.
(c) He has grown fat.
(d) I am feeling unwell
Ans. (b) The farmer grows wheat.
(viii) Intransitive use:
(a) The storm has blown off the terrace.
(b) She laughed heartily.
(c) He laughed at me.
(d) He gave a book.
Ans. (b) She laughed heartily.
(ix) Singular verb:
(a) They sing.
(b) She sings.
(c) They wait.
(d) They waited.
Ans. (b) She sings.
(x) Non-finite verb:
(a) They fly kites.
(b) He wants to swim,
(c) I wish I were a king.
(d) Do your duty.
Ans. (b) He wants to swim.
Q.2. Fill in the blanks with appropriate modal auxiliary verbs.
(i) Anyone _________ join the club if they want to. (can / could)
Ans. Anyone can join the club if they want to.
(ii) I _________ have won the race if I had run faster. (can / could)
Ans. I could have won the race if I had run faster.
(iii) I _________ buy a car next month. (may / can)
Ans. I may buy a car next month.
(iv) If you drive so carelessly, you _________ have an accident soon. (will / shall)
Ans. If you drive so carelessly, you will have an accident soon.
(v) One day, it _________ be possible to find a cure for cancer. (will / can)
Ans. One day, it will be possible to find a cure for cancer.
(vi) Even if you feed them every day, cats _________ never lose their hunting instincts. (will / may / should)
Ans. Even if you feed them every day, cats will never lose their hunting instincts.
(vii) If she started at six, she _________ be here soon. (should / could / will)
Ans. If she started at six, she should be here soon. (We use should to express logical possibility.)
(viii) ‘I am starving.’ ‘I _________ get you something to eat.’ (will / would / may)
Ans. ‘I am starving.’ ‘I will get you something to eat.’
(ix) _________ we call the police? (Shall / Will)
Ans. Shall we call the police?