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Short Notes - Computers in Accounting | SSC CGL Tier 2 - Study Material, Online Tests, Previous Year PDF Download

According to International Standards Organization – “ A Computer is a data processor that can perform substantial computations, including numerous arithmetic & logical operations, with intervention by a human operator during the run.”  

Components of a Computer

1. Input Devices : Such as Keyboard, Mouse etc.

2. CPU: It has three components – The control unit, memory unit and the logical unit.

3. Output Devices: Such As Monitor, Printer.

4. Hardware & Software

The System Software such as MS DOS, Windows 7 etc.- are a set of programs which control the operations & help processing.
The Application software such as MS Word, Tally etc. enables the user to perform useful specific functions.

Management Information System (MIS): Is an information system that provides the needed information to the managers to manage the organization effectively. It combines the three resources viz; technology, information & people for the efficient management of an enterprise.

Accounting Information System (AIS): Is an information system based on the accounting database of an organization, helping in storage, processing, summarizing & reporting information about an organization.
It has 3 elements viz: Computerized Accounting, Information and System.

Advantages of Computerized AIS : 
1. High Speed : of recording, storage, processing & retrieval of information.
2. Accuracy : As all the calculations etc. are done by the computer it has accuracy.
3. Reliability : The information is reliable.
4. Real Time User Interface : AIS enables direct & simultaneous interaction between user & the machine. 

Limitations of Computerized AIS :
1. Staff Opposition : As it reduces the no of employees, staff usually opposes it.
2. High Development Costs : Development requires qualified engineering staff & training also, so it‟s a costly affair.
3. Security Considerations : Cyber crime & hacking etc. are becoming very common these days, therefore security is always a concern.
4. High costs makes it suitable only for medium & large sized firms & not for small firms.

Role of Computers in Accounting

Owing to Globalization the business operations are becoming large scale & complex. The need therefore arose to record, compile, summarize & present the accounting information to the large number of interested users with greater speed, accuracy & utility.
Thus computerized accounting is the only appropriate solution to these needs.

Computerized accounting serves this purpose by using both the AIS & MIS very effectively by combining the following :

1. Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
2. Debtors Management
3. Inventory Management
4. Supply Chain Management
5. Payroll Accounting
6. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
7. Enterprise Performance Management (EPM)
8. Computerized preparation of Financial Statements
9. Tax Planning & Management    
10. Sales & Marketing Management

Comparision between Customized  & Readymade Software Packages 

BasisReadymade SoftwareCustomized Software
TimeIt saves time as it readymade It takes time for development 
CostIt is cost effective as money is not to be spent on its developmentIt is costlier 
After Sales ServiceIs promptly available because of well developed professionals as well as  marketHas to depend on the programmer who has developed the package specially for the needs of the firm
Ready AvailabilityIt is readily available in the marketIt is not readily available as it is tailor made to the firm‟s need.

Database & Database Management System

Database is data bank storing voluminous information about the entities within an organization and also the entities interacting with the organization.

Database Management System is the electronic data processing of information stored in the database. DBMS is “a set of programs that controls and manages creation, utilization and maintenance of database of a business organization.”  

Components of Database System : 

  • Data 
  • Hardware
  • Software
  • Users

Advantages of DBMS : 

1.  Reduced Data Redundancy
2. Protection of information
3. Greater Consistency
4. Reduced Costs
5. Back-up & Recovery facility

Limitations of DBMS:

1. High setting up costs
2. Lack of Expertise Knowledge
3. Security Problems
4. Hardware & Software costs due to fast obsolescence

Structured Query Language

It is a 4th generation Computer Programming language which greatly facilitates the writing of a program or application by the programmer in one tenth of time taken in older & third generation language like COBOL.

The document Short Notes - Computers in Accounting | SSC CGL Tier 2 - Study Material, Online Tests, Previous Year is a part of the SSC CGL Course SSC CGL Tier 2 - Study Material, Online Tests, Previous Year.
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FAQs on Short Notes - Computers in Accounting - SSC CGL Tier 2 - Study Material, Online Tests, Previous Year

1. What are the benefits of using computers in accounting?
Ans. Computers offer several benefits in accounting, including increased efficiency, accuracy, and speed in performing calculations and data entry. They also provide better storage and organization of financial records, easier access to information, and the ability to generate detailed reports and analysis.
2. How can computers help in reducing errors in accounting?
Ans. Computers can help in reducing errors in accounting by automating calculations and data entry processes, which minimizes the risk of human error. Additionally, accounting software often includes built-in validation checks and error detection mechanisms that flag potential errors or inconsistencies in financial data.
3. What accounting tasks can be performed using computers?
Ans. Computers can perform a wide range of accounting tasks, including bookkeeping, financial statement preparation, payroll processing, budgeting, tax calculations, and financial analysis. They can also facilitate online banking, electronic invoicing, and integration with other business systems, such as inventory management or customer relationship management.
4. Are there any disadvantages of using computers in accounting?
Ans. While computers offer numerous advantages in accounting, there are some potential disadvantages as well. These include the initial cost of hardware and software, the need for ongoing maintenance and updates, the risk of data breaches or cyberattacks, and the dependency on technology, which can lead to disruptions in case of system failures or power outages.
5. What skills are required for using computers in accounting?
Ans. To effectively use computers in accounting, individuals need to have basic computer literacy skills, such as proficiency in operating systems, file management, and using office productivity tools like spreadsheets and word processors. Additionally, familiarity with accounting software and understanding of accounting principles and concepts are essential for accurate data entry and interpretation of financial information.
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