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Class 6 Civics Chapter 7 Question Answers - Rural Livelihoods

Short Q & A :


Q1: Briefly explain the term seasonal unemployment.

Ans : Seasonal unemployment is found basically in agricultural sectors. In industrial sectors, people are employed normally for all the days in the year. But, this is not true for agriculture. This is due to the fact that agricultural operations require labour only during certain seasons. In between the seasons, the workers in agriculture remain idle or have no productive work to be engaged in.

Q2: List the main problems being faced by Indian farmers today.

Ans : 

The three problems faced by the Indian farmers are:-

  1. Lack of availability of water for irrigation. The high yielding variety of seeds, chemical fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides etc. are very expensive, the farmers find it difficult to purchase them.
  2. Most of the farmers have small holdings which are uneconomical.
  3. In case of a crop failure, it becomes difficult in paying the loans taken from the banks and private money lenders. In order, to pay the debts, they are compelled to sell their produce at cheaper rates.


Q3: Write short notes on rural livelihoods.

Ans : People in rural areas earn their living in various ways. Some work on farms while others earn their living on non-farms activates. Working on farms involves operations such as preparing the land, sowing, weeding and harvesting of crops. Most farmers grow crops both for their own requirements and also to sell in the market. There are some families in rural areas which thrive on large acres of lands, business and other activities. However, most small farmers, agricultural labourers, fishing families, crafts persons in the village do not find enough work to keep them employed throughout the year.

Q4: Describe the causes for the growth of agricultural labourers.

Ans : 

The causes for the growth of agricultural labourers are as follows:-

  1. Increase in population
  2. Decline of cottage and handicraft industries.
  3. Increase in indebtness.
  4. Eviction of small farmers and tenants from land.


Q5: Define the term bank.

Ans : The term bank ordinally applied to an institution which recieves deposits of money or of credit and which seeks profits through the extension or sale of its own credit.

Q6: What is special about Chakhesang community?

Ans : The people of Chizami have their own individual fields but they also work collectively in each other’s fields. They form groups of six or eight and take an entire mountainside to clean the weeds on it. All groups eat together once their work for the day is over. This goes on for several days until the job is completed.

Q7: State any five suggestions to raise agricultural productivity?

Ans : The agricultural productivity can be raised by providing the proper marketing facilities, provisions of better irrigational facilities, reduction of population burden on land, development of cottage and small scale industries and encouraging cooperative farming.

Q8: Give any five causes for the backwardness of Indian agriculture.

Ans : 

The main causes for the backwardness of the Indian agriculture are as follows:-

  1. Small and fragmented land holding
  2. Vicious circle of poverty
  3. Excessive dependence on monsoons
  4. No scientific method of cultivation
  5. Floods and droughts


Q9: What are the main activities of people living near coastal village areas?

Ans : People in villages near coastal areas earn their livelihood by fishing. Their houses are close to sea and one finds rows of catamarans and nets lying around. At about 7 a.m. there are lot of activities on beach, this is the time when catamarans return with their catch and women gather to buy and sell fish.

Q10: What is Plantation Agriculture?

Ans : Plantation agriculture is a type of commercial farming where single crop of tea, coffee, sugarcane, banana or cotton are grown. It requires the large amount of labour and capital. Major plantation are found in the tropical regions of the world like rubber in Malayasia, coffee in Brazil, tea in India etc.

Q11: Discuss the problems faced by the fishermen during the monsoon season.

Ans : During the monsoon season, the fishermen cannot go to the sea because this is when the fish breed. These months are the most difficult ones. They survive by borrowing money from traders. Because of this they face a problem of selling the fish to traders on low prices and cannot do their own auctions.

Q12: Abhi is a small farmer. He often needs to borrow money. Why?

Ans : Many times small farmers like Chhotu have to borrow money to purchase seeds, fertilizers and pesticides. They borrow money from rich farmers, shopkeepers, traders or moneylenders. Sometimes, either the seeds are not of good quality or pests attack them due to which crops get ruined. Failure of monsoon or untimely rainfall damages crops. In such a situation, farmers are unable to pay back their loans. Farmers also borrow money for marriage or any other social functions in the family. Many a times, they borrow money to purchase food items and to manage other daily expenditures.

Q13: What is the meaning of Five Year Plan of India?

Ans : The economy of India is based on planning through its five year plans developed and executed by the Planning Commission of India.

Q14: Why do poor people stay poor in rural India?

Ans : The major cause of poverty among India’s rural people is lack of access to productive assets and financial resources. High level of illiteracy and lack of adequate health facilities are also responsible for the poor staying poor in rural India.

Q15: Why does paddy crop need more water than other crops?

Ans : Paddy fields require large quantities of water for irrigation. Water also provides favorable environment for the rice strains to grow, as well as for discouraging the growth of many species of weeds.

Q16: Why do you think that agricultural labourers (like Muniamma) are forced to accept low wages?

Ans : Poverty and illiteracy are the two main factors responsible for the sufferings of farmers in rural India. Large proportion of poor people lives in rural areas. Poverty remains a chronic condition for 30% of India’s rural population.

Q17: Explain the self-help programme available for the fishing community in the villages of India?

Ans : Yes, there are self-help programmes available for the fishing community. The programmes make sure that at least one member in each family should be engaged in a profession. It also facilitates training in tailoring, nursing, driving, education, handicrafts and repair of electronic gadgets.

Q18: Why does Shekar not go to the town market to get better price for his paddy?

Ans : He borrows seeds and fertilizers as loan from a trader. To return his loan, he had to sell his paddy to this trader at lower price. Therefore, Shekhar is not able to go the town market to get better price for his paddy.

Q19: What was the condition of agriculture before independence?

Ans : Before independence, our villages were extremely backward. Most of the villages did not have modern facilities of irrigation. Farmers were mostly illiterate and superstitious. They did not have a scientific outlook, old methods of cultivation were followed. Zamindars or the British Government paid no heed towards the improvement of the farmers. People were mostly poor, though they worked hard.

Q20: Describe the village life in your own words.

Ans : Seventy five percent of our population lives in villages. Agriculture is the main occupation. Most of the villages are at a distance from cities. The houses of our villages are mostly made of mud, have thatched roofs and keep cattle at home. Some villages, lack proper medical aid.

Q21: What are the similarities and differences between Shekar’s and Thulasi’s lives according to the chapter?

Ans : Shekar and Thulasi both live in a village and do hard works for their living. Shekar is the owner of two acres of land while Thulasi and her family have no land of their own. Thulasi does work on the field owned by Ramalingam and Shekar in a rice mill. At leisure Thulasi does her home task and goes to collect firewood from the nearby forest. Shekar while free from his field works in Ramalingam’s rice mill and help him collecting paddy from nearby villages.

Q22: What changes did the arrival of electricity brought in the life of the villagers?

Ans : With the arrival of electricity, the output of agricultural produce has greatly increased. Tube wells driven by electricity helped in irrigating land. Besides agriculture, electrification also helped in industrial development in villages. Various comforts of life (such as radio, television etc.) made available to the villagers. Also, entertainment and education brought to the doorsteps of the villages by television and radio. Thus, the living standard of the villagers improved.

Q23: Explain zamindari system.

Ans : A zamindar was an official employed by the Mughals to collect taxes from peasants. The practice was continued under the British. The zamindar was considered as land lord and would collect all taxes on his lands and then hand over the collected taxes to the British authorities. The zamindars exploited the tillers and took themselves a major share of the produce and the peasant was left with very little. Thus, they had to borrow money from the zamindars and in return, they served them as bonded labour till the debt was repaid. After independence, the government of India abolished both the systems.

Q24: When a person is said to be caught in debt?

Ans : Farmers borrow money to purchase basic things like seeds, fertilizers and pesticides. Often they borrow this money from money lenders. If the seeds are not of good quality or pests attack their crop, there can be a major crop failure. The crops can also be ruined if the monsoon does not bring enough rain. When this happens farmers sometimes are unable to pay back their loans. And, for the family to survive, they may even have to borrow more money. Soon the loan becomes so large that no matter what they earn, they are unable to repay. This is when we can say they are caught in debt.

Q25: Why do village people depends upon collection from the forest, animal husbandry, dairy produce, fishing etc.?

Ans : The people in the rural areas depends upon collection from the forest, animal husbandry, dairy produce, fishing etc. For example, in Central India, both farming and collection from the forest are important sources of livelihood. Collecting mahua, tendu leaves, honey, to be sold to traders is an important source of additional income.

Q26: How could farmers raise the agricultural productivity?

Ans : The agricultural productivity can be raised by providing the proper marketing facilities, provisions of better irrigational facilities, reduction of population burden on land, development of cottage and small scale industries and encouraging cooperative farming.


Long Q & A : 


Q1: Why do you think that there is seasonal unemployment in villages?



In the villages of India, the main occupation of the people is agriculture or farming. Farmers do not get work throughout the year. Farming involves many activities like preparing land for sowing, transplanting saplings, weeding grass, applying fertilisers, harvesting crops and threshing grains. Whole work is done in periodic intervals. Due the break in the continuity of the farming work, there is seasonal unemployment in villages. When there is no work in the farm the farmers has to look for other work like making bricks, carrying bricks, building roads and houses.


Q2: Describe the life of the fishing community in Pudupet.

Ans : People in Pudupet earn their living by fishing. Their houses are close to the sea and were surrounded with catamarans and nets. Early in the morning fishermen with their catamarans get into the sea for fishing and in the evening the catamarans return with their catch. Women gather to buy and sell fish and later they sell their fish in the local market.

The document Class 6 Civics Chapter 7 Question Answers - Rural Livelihoods is a part of the Class 6 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 6.
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FAQs on Class 6 Civics Chapter 7 Question Answers - Rural Livelihoods

1. What are rural livelihoods?
Ans. Rural livelihoods refer to the means by which people in rural areas make a living. It includes various activities such as agriculture, fishing, animal husbandry, forestry, and handicrafts.
2. How important are rural livelihoods in rural areas?
Ans. Rural livelihoods are crucial for the economic and social development of rural areas. They provide employment opportunities, generate income, and contribute to the overall well-being of the rural population.
3. What are some challenges faced by rural livelihoods?
Ans. Rural livelihoods face several challenges, including limited access to markets, inadequate infrastructure, lack of modern technology, climate change impacts, and low levels of education and skill development.
4. How can government policies support rural livelihoods?
Ans. Government policies can support rural livelihoods by providing necessary infrastructure, improving access to credit and markets, promoting agricultural research and development, offering training and skill development programs, and implementing social welfare schemes.
5. Are there any initiatives to promote sustainable rural livelihoods?
Ans. Yes, there are several initiatives aimed at promoting sustainable rural livelihoods. These include organic farming, watershed management, promotion of renewable energy sources, women empowerment programs, and the adoption of climate-resilient practices.
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