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Class 6 Civics Chapter 8 Question Answers - Urban Livelihoods

Short Q & A :

 Q1: What are the working conditions of the non-permanent workers?

Ans : The working conditions of the non-permanent workers are very depressing. They are given very minimum pay for their work and if they complain about their pay, they are asked to leave the job. There is no job security or protection if there is ill treatment. They are also expected to work very long hours. For example in the cloth mill units the workers work on day and night shifts, with each shift lasting 12 hours. One worker works on one machine for 12 hours and then is replaced by another on the same machine for the next 12 hours.

Q2: Describe the living conditions of workers who come to the labour Chowk?

Ans : The living conditions of workers who gather at the labor Chowk are often dire. Many of them lack permanent housing and may resort to sleeping on the streets or in makeshift shelters. Due to their low incomes, they may struggle to afford basic necessities such as food, clean water, and healthcare. The absence of social safety nets and support systems further exacerbates their hardships.

Q3: Briefly describe the benefits enjoyed by the Marketing Manager.

Ans : 

The benefits enjoyed by the Marketing Manager are as follows:

  1. Regular salary as a permanent worker with the company.
  2. Entitlement to provident funds.
  3. Occasional holidays and perks provided by the company.
  4. Access to medical facilities.

 Q4: List some of the duties of the Marketing Manager.

Ans : Marketing managers play a crucial role in promoting products or services and driving sales. Some of their duties include conducting market research to understand consumer needs and preferences, developing marketing strategies to target specific demographics, overseeing advertising and promotional campaigns, pricing products or services competitively, and managing relationships with clients or customers.

Q5: Who are casual workers?

Ans : The casual worker is a worker who is employed on a temporary basis with generally limited entitlements to benefits and little or no security of employment. The main feature is the absence of a continuing relationship of any stability with an employer, which could lead to their not being considered ‘employees’ at all.

Q6: Write short notes on ‘labour chowk’.

Ans : A labor Chowk serves as a gathering place for daily wage laborers seeking employment opportunities. These laborers often engage in various manual tasks such as construction, loading and unloading goods, or other forms of manual labor. Labor Chowks are characterized by their transient nature, with workers assembling daily in search of work. They play a vital role in providing employment for individuals with limited skills or resources.

Q7: Why do small workshops and factories need casual workers?

Ans : Small workshops and factories often require casual workers due to fluctuating demand and the need for flexibility in their workforce. Casual workers allow these establishments to manage peak periods or sudden increases in workload without committing to permanent employment contracts. They provide cost-effective labor without the long-term obligations associated with permanent staff.

Q8: State the differences between marketing and selling.

Ans : Marketing emphasizes selling of satisfaction rather than selling a product or service. The basic objective is to find what the customer want and to ensure that they get the maximum possible satisfaction. Whereas, selling is concerned merely with the transfer of goods which the seller has already produced. Marketing focuses on the needs of the buyer, and selling, on the needs of the seller.

Q9: What is a Call Centre?

Ans : A Call Centre is a centralised office that deals with problems and queries of the consumers regarding goods purchased and services like banking, ticket booking etc. It has the ability to handle a considerable volume of calls at the same time, to screen calls and forward them to someone qualified to handle them.

Q10: What do you mean by the set-up of a Call Centre?

Ans : Call Centres are usually set up as large rooms with working stations that includes a computer, a telephone set and supervisor’s stations. All computers are linked to a mother computer.

Q11: Briefly describe the consumer market.

Ans : Markets initially started as marketplaces usually in the hub of villages and towns, for the sale or barter of farm produce, clothing and day to day items. These kinds of street markets developed into a whole variety of consumer-oriented markets, such as shopping centers, supermarkets, or even online markets (internet).

Q12: Define Markets.

Ans : A market is a place where buyers and sellers meet to exchange their goods and services. The markets may be in one specific place like Khan market in South Delhi or do not exist physically at all like online shopping (Internet).

Q13: What are the main problems faced by the vendors?

Ans : 

The main problem vendor’s faces are:

  1. Shops are usually temporary in structures.
  2. Dismantling of their shops any time by the police.
  3. They have no security.
  4. There are certain parts of city where these vendors are not allowed to enter.

Q14: Differentiate between a family and a community.

Ans : 

FamilyCommunity
  1. It is the smallest unit of a civic life.
  2. Consists of parents and children.
    1. Parents manage affairs.
  1. It is the biggest unit of civic life.
  2. Consists of people living in one place, district or country
  3. Here, local bodies manage their affairs.

Q15: Name the markets which provide goods on credit.

Ans : Weekly markets do not have permanent shops. They are set up only for a day. Therefore its not possible to buy goods on credit. Neighbourhood markets provide goods on credit.

Q16: Why is the government thinking to modify the law related to vendors?

Ans : The government is thinking about modifying the law that banned street vendors, so that they have a place to work and that there is also a free flow of traffic and people. Hawking zones have been suggested for towns and cities. It has also been suggested that mobile vendors should be allowed to move around freely. Hawkers need to be part of committees that are set up to take these and other decisions relating to them.

Q17: Describe the working conditions of a ‘Call Centre’.

Ans : A Call Centre is a centralised office that deals with problems and questions that consumers/customers have regarding goods purchased and services like banking, ticket booking etc. Call centres are generally set up as large rooms with work stations that include a computer, a telephone set and supervisor’s stations. India has become a major centre not only for Indian companies but also for foreign companies.

Q18: Name and explain the local bodies that look after the urban areas.

Ans : The local bodies that look after the problems of the urban areas are:

  • Municipal Corporations
  • Municipalities
  • Town Area Committees

Municipal Corporations: These are the local governing bodies of big cities such as Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai etc. The main functions of the municipal corporations are providing public health and sanitation, making arrangement for vaccination, supply of safe drinking water, clearing and disposal of garbage, cleaning roads, drains and public toilets.
Municipalities: Smaller towns and cities with population ranging between 20,000-5, 00,000 have municipalities as the local government body.
Town Area Committees: Municipalities and municipal corporations carry their day to day work with the help of a number of committees such as the education committee, the public health committee and the district planning committee.

 Q19: Differentiate between a permanent or regular jobs and casual jobs.

Ans : Permanent or regular jobs offer stability and security to employees. They typically involve fixed working hours, salaries, and benefits such as provident funds, medical facilities, and paid leave. On the other hand, casual jobs are temporary and offer no long-term commitment from employers. Casual workers are often paid on a daily basis and lack benefits and job security.

Q20: Who makes rules and regulations in a civic life?

Ans : All human progress is the result of living and working together. Cooperation has helped humans towards progress and prosperity. As population increased and life became more complex, governments became more organised. They made laws to regulate and control the activities of the people. We should cooperate with our government and abide by all the rules and regulations.

Q21: What problems are posed by urban poverty?

Ans : Urban poverty poses the problems of housing, water, sanitation, health, education, social security and livelihoods. Poor people live in slums which are overcrowded, often polluted and lack basic civic amenities like clean drinking water, sanitation and health facilities. Most of the people are involved in the informal sector activities where there is constant threat of eviction, removal, confiscation of goods and almost non-existent social security cover. These are some of the problems that are faced by the poor urban people

 Long Q & A :

Q1: Why do people prefer working in an organised sector?

Ans : 

Unorganized sector is characterized by low wages, long hours of work and lack of job security. People prefer to work in an organised sector because of the following reasons –

  1. Workers enjoy security of employment.
  2. There are fixed number of working hours. If workers work more, they have to be paid overtime by the employer
  3. Employees of the organised sector are entitled to medical leave, payment during holidays, provident fund etc.
  4. Workers also get medical benefits and under the laws, factory manager has to ensure facilities like drinking water and a safe working environment.

 

Q2: Compare livelihood challenges faced by rural and urban women.

Ans : 

Challenges faced by rural women –

  1. Poor resource base and resource quality (small or no agricultural land and water)
  2. Illiteracy and lack of skill
  3. Lack of awareness on different government schemes and programmes
  4. Lack of knowledge of disasters

Challenges faced by urban women –

  1. Lack of employment and irregular jobs
  2. Lack of job security and low wages
  3. Lack of sufficient and timely credit support system for petty trade
  4. Fear of eviction by police and civic bodies
  5. Congested and hazardous working conditions
The document Class 6 Civics Chapter 8 Question Answers - Urban Livelihoods is a part of the Class 6 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 6.
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FAQs on Class 6 Civics Chapter 8 Question Answers - Urban Livelihoods

1. What are urban livelihoods?
Ans. Urban livelihoods refer to the ways in which people living in urban areas earn a living or sustain their lives. It includes various occupations, employment opportunities, and income-generating activities that are available in cities or towns.
2. What are the challenges faced by urban dwellers in terms of livelihoods?
Ans. Urban dwellers face several challenges in terms of livelihoods, such as high competition for jobs, limited access to resources and basic services, high cost of living, lack of skills and education, and informal employment with low wages.
3. How do people in urban areas earn a livelihood?
Ans. People in urban areas earn a livelihood through various means, including formal employment in offices, factories, and businesses, self-employment as street vendors or small-scale entrepreneurs, casual labor, domestic work, and involvement in the informal sector.
4. What are the advantages of urban livelihoods compared to rural livelihoods?
Ans. Urban livelihoods offer certain advantages over rural livelihoods, such as better access to job opportunities, education, healthcare, infrastructure, and services. Urban areas also tend to have a more diverse and dynamic economy, which can provide better income prospects.
5. How can government policies support urban livelihoods?
Ans. Government policies can support urban livelihoods by creating an enabling environment for job creation, promoting skill development programs, improving access to education and healthcare, providing social protection measures, and implementing urban planning strategies that ensure equitable access to resources and services for all urban dwellers.
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