125) Give an account of inter-state disparities in poverty in India. Or Explain briefly inter-state disparities of poverty in India. Or Give a brief account of inter-state disparities of poverty in India.
Answer: According to the concept of social exclusion, poverty must be seen in terms of the poor having to live only in poor surroundings with other poor people, excluded from enjoying social equality with better-off people in better surroundings. It is a process through which individuals or groups are excluded from facilities, benefits and opportunities that others enjoy. Its typical example is the working of caste system in India. In this system, people from certain castes are excluded from equal opportunities.
126) What is social exclusion? Give one example of it.
Answer: (a) Self-employment to educated people. (b) Self-employment to rural people. (c) Formation of SHGs for rural poor. (d) Providning basic services in villages. (e) Providing manual unskilled work to rural poor. (f) 100 day's assured employment to rural households. (g) Provides highly subsidized food grains.
127) The Government of India has initiated many poverty alleviation programmes. Below are given some such programmes (a) PMRY (b) REGP (c) SGSY (d) PMGY (e) NFWP (f) NREGA (g)AAY. In your view, which one is the central feature of each of these programmes?
Answer: There has been substantial reduction in global poverty, but there are regional disparities described below (i) Poverty declined in China and South-East Asian countries as a result of rapid economic growth and huge investments in the development of human resources. (ii) In Latin America and the Caribbean, the ratio of poverty remained almost the same. (iii) In Sub-Saharan Africa, poverty saw an upward trend due to successive droughts. It rose from 41% in 1981 to 46% in 2001. (iv) Poverty has again surfaced in some of the former socialist countries like Russia, where formerly it was non-existent.
128) Describe global poverty trends.
Answer: The four anti-poverty programmes are (i) National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) 2005, which provides 100 days assured employment per year to rural households in 200 districts initially. (ii) National Food for Work Programme (NFWP) 2004 was launched in 150 most backward districts of the country. It is open to all rural poor who are in need of wage employment. (iii) Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana (PMRY) 1993 and Rural Employment Generation Programme (REGP) 1995 were started to create self-employment opportunities for educated youth in rural areas and small towns. (iv) Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) 1999 aims at bringing the poor families above poverty line by organizing them into self help groups through bank credit and government subsidy.
129) Explain four important anti-poverty measures undertaken by the Government of India. Or Write a note on any four programmes that have been developed for the eradication of poverty in India.
Answer: Three features of NREGA are (i) It guarantees 100 days of wage-employment in a financial year to a rural household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work. One-third of the proposed jobs would be reserved for women. (ii) The scheme will initially be started in 200 districts. Later on, the scheme will be extended to 600 districts. (iii) If an applicant is not provided employment within fifteen days, she/he will be entitled to a daily unemployment allowance.
130) Mention any three features of the NREGA, 2005. Or What are the main features of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005?
Answer:The following issues, I will suggest regarding poverty alleviation (i) Stop social exclusion (ii) Increase literacy level (iii) Focus on healthcare (iv) Provide sufficient drinking water (v) Provide employment opportunities (vi) Focus on sanitation
131) "In India majority of population lives below poverty lines. Government is taking pain to lessen poverty". Your are the member of the commission appointed to suggest the - areas/issues concerned. Which issues would you suggest regarding poverty alleviation?
Answer: Causes of poverty in India are (i) Low Level of Economic Development under the British Colonial Administration The policies of the colonial government ruined traditional handicrafts and discouraged development of industries like textiles. (ii) Low Rate of India's Economic Growth after Independence This resulted in less job opportunities and low growth rates of incomes, accompanied by a high growth rate of population, increasing poverty. (iii) Lack of Land Resources Land reforms aimed at redistribution of assets in rural areas have not been implemented effectively. (iv) Backwardness in Agriculture People mostly use old and traditional methods of farming. This requires much labour and time. Effects of irrigation and the Green Revolution were limited to only some parts of India.
132) Explain any four important causes of poverty in India. Or Discuss the major reasons for poverty in India.
Answer: Economic growth has been slow in India in the past due to the industrialization rate being low and thus not generating enough jobs for the increasing population. Simultaneously, there is a migration of people from villages to towns in search of jobs, thus increasing poverty in urban areas, as these migrants are forced to work on casual basis on low wages. In the rural areas, there is unequal distribution of land, a high level of indebtedness and many social obligations, which further create poverty. Thus, the cycle of poverty is self-perpetuating.
133) "The failure on both the fronts, promotion of economic growth and population control, perpetuated the cycle of poverty" Comment on this statement.
Answer: A person is considered poor if his or her income or consumption level falls below a given 'minimum level' necessary to fulfil basic needs. This minimum level is considered as the poverty line. The poverty line fixed for the rural and urban areas in India according in the year 2000 was 328 and 454 per person per month respectively. It is higher in urban areas because of high prices of many essential commodities in urban areas. The accepted average of calories requirement in India is 2400 calories per person-per day in rural areas and 2100 calories in urban areas. It is high in the rural areas because of more physical work done by the rural people.
134) What is poverty line? What are the calories and rupees fixed for rural and urban areas for measuring the poverty line?
Answer: Following are the features of global poverty scenario (i) The proportion of people in developing countries living in extreme economic poverty defined by the World Bank as living of less than $ 1 per day has fallen from 28% in 1990 to 21 percent in 2001. (ii) Poverty declined substantially in China and South-East Asian countries as a result of rapid economic growth and massive investment in human resource development. (iii) In the countries of South Asia, the decline has not been as rapid. (iv) In Sub-Saharan Africa, poverty in fact rose from 41% in 1981 to 46% in 2001. (v) In Latin America, the ratio of poverty remained the same. (vi) Poverty has also resurfaced in some of the former socialist countries like Russia, where officially it was non-existent earlier
135) Describe the global poverty scenario as studied by the World Bank. Or Explain any five features of the global poverty scenario. Or Describe three distinct features of global poverty scenario.
Answer:The higher growth rates have helped significantly in the reduction of poverty. In the 1980s, India's economic growth was one of the fastest in the world. The growth rate rose from the average of about 3.5% a year in the 1970s to about to 6 % during the 1980s and 1990s. The higher growth rates have helped significantly in the reduction of poverty. Therefore it is becoming clear that there is a strong link between economic growth and poverty reduction. Economic growth widens opportunities an" provides the resources needed to invest in human development. This also encourages people send their children, including girls, to schools the hope of getting better economic returns from investing in education.
136) "There is a strong link between economic growth and poverty reduction." Explain the statement. Or Do you think economic growth is linked with the reduction of poverty? Give any three arguments in support of your answer.
Answer: To estimate the poverty line in India following points can be considered (i) A Common method used to measure poverty is based on income and consumption levels. (ii) A minimum level of food requirement and other basic needs such as clothing, footwear, fuel and light, educational and medical requirements, etc. are determined for subsistence. (iii) These are then calculated in terms of money required to consume them by multiplying physical quantities by their prices in rupees. (iv) Such a consumption expenditure determines the poverty line. For the year 2000, the poverty line for a person was fixed at 328 per month in rural areas and 454 for the urban areas.
137) How is the poverty line in India determined? Explain the methods. Or Explain how the poverty line is determined in India? Mention any two determinats.
Answer: The most vulnerable groups as far as poverty is concerned are (i) Poor people belonging to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. (ii) Agricultural labour households in rural areas and casual labour households in urban areas. (iii) The aged, women, female children and the physically and mentally challenged persons. West Bengal has reduced poverty by better implementation of land reform measures. Tamil Nadu has tackled poverty by having an effective Public Distribution System for subsidised food grains to the poor. Punjab has reduced poverty by high agricultural growth due to the Green Revolution.
138) Who are the most vulnerable as far as poverty is concerned? How have the states of West Bengal, Punjab and Tamil Nadu tackled poverty?
Answer:By the measures given below, poverty can be reduced in future in India (i) Attaining sustainable higher economic growth rate. (ii) By increasing stress on universal free and essential primary education. (iii) By providing sufficient medical facilities even in the rural areas so that the population growth rate could be minimised. (iv) By focusing on empowerment of the women and economically weaker sections of the society.
139) How can poverty be reduced in future in India? Suggest any four points.
Answer: Following indicators are used by social scientists to look at poverty (i) Illiteracy level It is a situation where parents are unable to send their children to school. (ii) Lack of access to healthcare It is a situation in which sick people cannot afford treatment. (iii) Lack of access to drinking water It means lack of safe and clean drinking water facilities. (iv) Lack of job opportunity It means no availability of regular job opportunity. (v) Lack of general resistance It means lack of general resistance due to malnutrition. (vi) Lack of sanitation It means cleaning of our surrounding.
140) How is poverty interpreted by the social scientists? Explain. Or "Since poverty has many facets, social scientists look at it through a variety of indicators." In the light of this statement mention any three indicators.
Answer: (a) A person is considered poor if his or her income or consumption level falls below a given 'minimum level' necessary to fulfil basic needs. This minimum level is considered as a poverty line. It is different at different times and in different countries. (b) The poverty line fixed for the rural and urban areas in India according to 2000 Census was 328 and 454 per person per month respectively. It is higher in urban areas because of high prices of many essential products in urban areas. The accepted average of calories requirement in India is 2400 calories per person per day in the rural areas and 2100 calories per person per day in the urban areas. It is high in the rural areas because of more physical work by the rural people.
141) (a) What is poverty line? (b) What are the calories and rupees fixed for rural and urban areas of measuring poverty line? Or Define the term poor and what is accepted average calories requirement in India for rural and urban areas.
Answer: (a) A person is considered poor if his/her income or consumption level falls below a given 'minimum level' necessary to fulfil some basic needs. As per year2000, persons earning less than 1640/month in the rural area and less than 2270/ month in the urban areas are considered poor. Persons getting less than 2400 calories/day in the rural areas and less than 2100 calories/day in the urban areas are considered poor. (b) Social groups which are most vulnerable to poverty are Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes households. They are mostly illiterate, unaware, landless, jobless, prone to diseases, etc. Among the economic groups, the most vulnerable groups include the rural agricultural households and the urban casual labour household. It is so due to seasonal nature of job, minimum wages, exploitation by the employer, etc.
142) (a) Who are considered poor? (b) Explain and identify the economic and social groups which are most vulnerable to poverty.
Answer: (a) Following are the social and economic groups more vulnerable to poverty in India. (i) Poor people of Scheduled Castes. (ii) Poor people of Scheduled Tribes. (iii) Agricultural labourers and casual labourers. (iv) Backward class people, over aged, women, children, physically and mentally challenged people. (b) Following are the reasons of poverty in such communities (i) In India caste system has many ill effects. In this system people from such communities are excluded from equal opportunities and facilities that others enjoy. (ii) Illiteracy is one of the causes. They are mostly illiterate. When they migrate to the towns, they work in factories, at the shops, etc. The factory owners and shopkeepers exploit them. (iii) They (SCs, STs) are usually landless. They work as labourers in the field. They are not paid enough. (iv) They celebrate festivals and do other social activities. For this, they take money from moneylenders. Moneylenders exploit them and they become victim of indebtedness.
143) (a) Mention social and economic groups who are more vulnerable to poverty in India. (b) Explain any two reasons of poverty in such communities. Or Describe about social and economic groups which are more vulnerable to poverty in India.
Following are the major poverty alleviation programmes initiated or implemented by the government of India Pradhan Mantri Rozgar Yojana (PMRY) (i) This programme was launched in 1993. (ii)It is aimed at providing self-employment opportunity to educated unemployed youth in the rural and urban areas. (iii) Under this programme scheduled banks provide loans at a lower interest rate to start small business and set up industries. Rural Employment Generation Programme (REGP) (i) This programme was launched in 1995. (ii) The aim of the programme is to create self-employment opportunity in rural areas and small towns. (iii) A target for creating 25 lakh new jobs has been set for this programme under the tenth five year plan. Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) (i) This scheme was launched in 1999. (ii)This programme aims at bringing the rural poor families above the poverty line, (iii) To achieve this goal, it organises them into self help groups (SHGs) through a mix of bank credit and government subsidy. Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY) (i) This programme was launched in 2000. (ii)Under the programme the central government provides additional assistance to the state government for improving basic services in the village. (iii) The major basic services covered under this programme are primary health, primary education, rural shelter, rural drinking water and rural electrification. National Food for Work Programme (NFWP) (i) This programme was launched in 2004 in 150 most backward districts of the country. (ii) This programme is open to all rural poor who are in need of wage employment and desire to do manual unskilled work. (iii) It is implemented as a 100% centrally sponsored scheme. (iv) Under this scheme, food grains are provided we cost to the states. (v) Later this scheme was merged with NREGA. National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) (i) This Act was passed in September 2005. (ii) This Act is now renamed as Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA). (iii) This act provides 100 days assured employment every year to every rural household in 200 districts. Later, the scheme will be extended to 600 districts. (iv) One third of the proposed jobs would be reserved for women. (v) The central government will establish National Employment Guarantee Funds (NEGF). The state governments will also establish State Employment Guarantee Funds (SEGF) for implementation of scheme. (vi) Under this programme if an applicant is not provided employment within 15 days, he/she will be entitled to a daily unemployment allowance. Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) (i) This scheme was launched in December 2000. (ii) One crore of the poorest among the BPL families were covered under the targeted PDS. (iii) 25 kg of food gains were made available to each eligible family at a highly subsidized rate 2 per kg for wheat and 3 per kg for rice. (iv) This quantity has been enhanced from 25 kg to 35 kg with effect from April 2002. (v) Now almost two crore families are covered under this scheme.
144) Describe any two important poverty alleviation programmes currently being implemented in India. Or Explain any five anti-poverty measures taken up by the government of India.
Answer: (a) The issues to be tackled which can help in poverty alleviation are (i) Provide employment opportunities for all levels of people. (ii) Improve the literacy level of people. (iii) Improve delivery of healthcare, improve sanitation and arrange provision of sufficient clean drinking water. (iv) Stop social exclusion of the economically and socially weaker sections. (b) From the above statements I have learnt, that poverty is the major problem of our country and eradication of poverty is the main target of the government.
145) 'In India, a majority of the population lives below the poverty line. Government is taking pains to lessen poverty.' Read the above statements and answer the following questions (a) If you are the member of a commission appointed to suggest the areas/issues concerned with poverty, which issues would you suggest regarding poverty alleviation? (b) What values/lesson have you learnt from the given statements?
Answer: The current anti-poverty strategy of the government has a two-pronged approach i.e., promotion of economic growth and targeted anti-poverty programmes. Economic growth widens opportunities and provides resources needed to invest in human development. To enable the poor to take advantage of this economic growth, the government has formulated several anti-poverty schemes to affect poverty directly or indirectly. Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana (PMRY), Rural Employment Generation Programme (REGP), Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY), Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY), Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY), National Food for Work Programme (NFWP) and National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) are some of the Anti-Poverty Schemes of the government. There is also a proposal for establishing National and State Employment Guarantee Funds. However, despite the good intentions of these schemes, the benefits have not fully reached the deserving poor. Hence, the major emphasis in recent years has been on proper implementation and monitoring of all the poverty alleviation programmes.
|1. What is poverty?
|2. What are the causes of poverty?
|3. How does poverty impact society?
|4. What are the measures taken to alleviate poverty?
|5. What is the role of education in reducing poverty?