Past Year Questions: Precipitation & General Aspects of Hydrology

# Past Year Questions: Precipitation & General Aspects of Hydrology | Topic wise GATE Past Year Papers for Civil Engineering - Civil Engineering (CE) PDF Download

Question 1. A catchment may be idealised as a rectangle. There are three rain gauges located inside the catchment at arbitrary locations. The average precipitation over the catchment is estimated by two methods:     [2019 : 1 Mark, Set-I]
(i)    Arithmetic mean (PA), and
(ii)   Thiessen polygon (PT). Which one of the following statements is correct?
(a)    PA is always smaller than PT
(b)    PA is always equal to PT
(c)    There is no definite relationship between PA and PT
(d)    PA is always greater than P
(c)
Solution:
The result from Thiessen polygon method is more accurate than arithmetic mean method. But there is no any close relationship between values obtained by Thiessen polygon method and Arithmetic mean method.
∴ There is no any relation between PA and PT.

Question 2. Rainfall depth over a watershed is monitored through six number of well distributed rain gauges. Gauged data are given below:

The Thiessen mean value (in mm, up to one decimal place) of the rainfall is______      [2018 : 2 Marks, Set-I]
Solution:
Thiessen mean value of rainfall;

Question 3. A catchment is idealized as a 25 km x 25 km square. It has five rain gauges, one at each corner and one at the center, as shown in the figure.

During a month, the precipitation at these gauges is measured as G1 = 300 mm, G2 = 285 mm, G3 = 272 mm, G4 = 290 mm and G5 = 288 mm. The average precipitation (in mm, up to one decimal place) over the catchment during this month by using the Thiessen polygon method is      [2017 : 2 Marks, Set-II]

Solution:

Let sides of square be, a = 25 km Now area of the polygon is calculated as,

Question 4. In a catchment, there are four rain-gauge stations, P, Q, Ft and S. Normal annual precipitation values at these stations are 780 mm, 850 mm, 920 mm and 980 mm, respectively. In the year 2013, stations Q, R and S, were operative but P was not. Using the normal ratio method, the precipitation at station P for the year 2013 has been estimated as 860 mm. If the observed precipitation at stations O and P for the year 2013 were 930 mm and 1010 mm, respectively; what was the observed precipitation (in mm) at station S for that year?      [2015 : 2 Marks, Set-I]
Solution:
Let Pp = Precipitation in 2013 at station P
Np = Normal annual precipitation at station P

Question 5. An isohyet is a line joining points of     [2013 : 1 Mark]
(a) equal temperature
(b) equal humidity
(c) equal rainfall depth
(d) equal evaporation
(c)

The document Past Year Questions: Precipitation & General Aspects of Hydrology | Topic wise GATE Past Year Papers for Civil Engineering - Civil Engineering (CE) is a part of the Civil Engineering (CE) Course Topic wise GATE Past Year Papers for Civil Engineering.
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## FAQs on Past Year Questions: Precipitation & General Aspects of Hydrology - Topic wise GATE Past Year Papers for Civil Engineering - Civil Engineering (CE)

 1. What is precipitation and how does it contribute to hydrology?
Ans. Precipitation refers to the process by which water in the atmosphere condenses and falls to the Earth's surface in the form of rain, snow, sleet, or hail. It plays a crucial role in hydrology as it is the primary source of water for rivers, lakes, and groundwater. Precipitation replenishes water resources and influences the overall water balance in a given area.
 2. How is precipitation measured in hydrology?
Ans. Precipitation is measured using various instruments such as rain gauges, weather radars, and satellites. Rain gauges are the most common method and consist of a cylindrical container with markings to measure the amount of rainfall. Weather radars use radio waves to estimate the location, intensity, and movement of precipitation. Satellites measure precipitation indirectly by observing cloud patterns and estimating rainfall rates using algorithms.
 3. What are the different types of precipitation and how do they form?
Ans. The main types of precipitation are rain, snow, sleet, and hail. Rain occurs when water droplets in clouds combine and grow large enough to fall to the ground. Snow forms when water vapor freezes into ice crystals in the atmosphere, which then fall as individual snowflakes. Sleet is a mix of rain and snow, where snowflakes partially melt and refreeze before reaching the ground. Hail forms in severe thunderstorms when updrafts carry raindrops upward, allowing them to freeze and accumulate layers of ice before falling.
 4. How does precipitation variability impact hydrological systems?
Ans. Precipitation variability refers to changes in the amount, intensity, and distribution of rainfall over time. It can have significant impacts on hydrological systems. Excessive precipitation can lead to flooding, while prolonged periods of low precipitation can cause droughts. Variability in precipitation patterns can also affect water availability, soil moisture, and groundwater recharge. Understanding and predicting precipitation variability is crucial for effective water resource management and flood control.
 5. How does climate change affect precipitation patterns and hydrology?
Ans. Climate change can alter precipitation patterns and subsequently impact hydrology. It can lead to changes in the timing, intensity, and distribution of rainfall. Warmer temperatures can increase evaporation rates, leading to more intense rainfall events and potentially exacerbating flooding. Changes in precipitation patterns can also affect snowpack levels, leading to changes in snowmelt runoff and water availability. Climate change poses challenges for water resource planning and management, as it requires adaptation strategies to mitigate the impacts on hydrological systems.

## Topic wise GATE Past Year Papers for Civil Engineering

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