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Class 10 History Chapter 1 Previous Year Questions - The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

2023

Q1: Arrange the following in chronological order and choose the correct option: 
(I) Napoleonic wars 
(II) The Treaty of Vienna 
(III) Greek Struggle for Independence 
(IV) Slav Nationalism in the Ottoman Empire 
(a) III, II, I and IV
(b) I, II, III and IV
(c) IV, III, II and I
(d) IV, II, III and I        [2023]
Ans: (b)
I, II, III, and IV

Q2:  Explain Romanticism as a cultural movement in Europe.       [2023]
Ans: Romanticism, became a cultural movement that helped to develop a particular kind of nationalist sentiment. Romantic artists generally focused on emotions, intuition, and mystical feelings. They criticized reasoning and the scientific temper.

Q3: Explain Frederic Sarrieu's dream in the context of democratic and social republics in France during 1848.    [2023]
Ans: Frederic Sorrieu was a French artist. In the year 1848, he prepared a series of four prints, in these four prints, he visualized his dream of a world made up of democratic and social republics, as he called them.

Question for Previous Year Questions: The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
Try yourself:Q4: Match the following attributes of allegory of Germania with its significance and choose the correct option.

Class 10 History Chapter 1 Previous Year Questions - The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

View Solution

2022

Q1: Which type of governments were mainly driven in Europe after the defeat of Napoleon in 1815?
(a) 
Conservative
(b) 
Liberal
(c) 
Federal
(d) 
Feudal       (2022)
Ans: 
(a)
After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, European governments were driven by conservatism. They believed | that the established traditional institutions of state and; society should be preserved.

Q2: Which one of the following groups of countries collectively defeated Napoleon in 1815?
(a) 
Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria
(b) Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Australia
(c) Britain, Russia, Netherlands and Germany
(d) Britain, Luxembourg, Germany and Italy      (2022) 
Ans: (a)
ln 1815, European powers like Britain, Russia; Prussia, and Austria collectively defeated Napoleon.

Q3: Industrialisation began in which one of the following  European countries in the second half of the eighteenth century?
(a)
Germany
(b) France
(c) Italy
(d) England     (2022)
Ans: 
(d)
Industrialization began in England in the second j half of the eighteenth century. Other countries like France, Germany, and Italy, industrialized in the late nineteenth century.

Q4: In which one of the following countries did the first liberalist-nationalist upheaval take place in July  1830?
(a)
France
(b) Germany
(c) England
(d) Italy            (2022)
Ans: 
(a)
In July 1830, the first liberalist-nationalist upheaval took place in France. The Bourbon kings who had been restored to power during the conservative reaction after 1815, were overthrown by liberal revolutionaries who installed a constitutional monarchy.

Q5: Who among the following remarked “When France j sneezes, the rest of Europe catches cold”?
(a)
Lord Byron
(b) Metternich
(c) Johann Herder
(d) Napoleon       (2022)
Ans:
(b)
The July Revolution of France sparked an uprising in Brussels and later in other parts of Europe, Metternich remarked, 'When France sneezes, the rest of Europe catches a cold'.

Q6: Two statements are given below as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the most appropriate option.
Assertion (A): After the Russian occupation of Poland, the Russian language was imposed on its people.
Reason (R): The use of Polish soon came to be a symbol of struggle against Russian dominance.
(a)
Both A and R are correct, and R is the correct explanation of the A.
(b) Both A and R are correct, but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(c) A is correct, but R is incorrect.
(d) A is incorrect, but R is correct.              (2022)
Ans:
(b)
Language played an important role in the development of nationalist feelings. After the Russian occupation, polish was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed. But many people, especially priests and bishops continued using Polish as a symbol of struggle.

Q7: Read the facts regarding the Revolution of the Liberals in Europe during 1848 and choose the correct option:
I. Abdication of the monarch
II. Universal male suffrage had been proclaimed
III. Political Rights for women were given
IV. Freedom of the press had been asked for
(a)
Only I and II are correct.
(b) Only I, II, and III are correct.
(c) Only I and IV are correct.
(d) only I, II, and IV are correct.      (2022)
Ans: 
(a)
The matter of extending political rights to women was controversial. They were denied suffrage rights during the election of the Assembly. In the Frankfurt parliament, they stood only as observers.
Freedom of the press had been asked much before 1848. Liberal-nationalists raised this issue after the: conservative regimes were set up in 1815.

Question for Previous Year Questions: The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
Try yourself:Q8: Two statements are given below as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the most appropriate option.
Assertion (A) : Weavers in Silesia had led a revolt against contractors in 1845.
Reason (R) : Contractors had drastically reduced their payments                                         
     (2022)
View Solution

Q9: Which of the following is not a part of the 'United Kingdom of Great Britain?

(a) England
(b) Poland
(c) Scotland
(d) Ireland        (2022)
Ans:
(b)
Poland

Q10: Who among the following was the architect of the unification of Germany?
(a)
Otto Von Bismarck
(b) William I
(c) Frederick III
(d) William II        (2022)
Ans:
(a)
Otto Von Bismarck led the unification of Germany in 1871. He is known as the architect of German unification.

Q11: Who among the following together a coherent programme Italian Republic during the 1830s?
(a)
Victor Emmanuel I
(b) Victor Emmanuel II
(c) Giuseppe Mazzini
(d) Count Cavour                 (2022)
Ans:
(c)
Giuseppe Mazzini sought to put together a coherent program for a unitary Italian Republic. He also formed a secret society called Young Italy to spread his ideas.

Q12: Who among the following was proclaimed King of united Italy in 1861?
(a) 
Charles I
(b) Victor Emmanuel II
(c) Giuseppe Garibaldi
(d) Nero         (2022)
Ans:
(b)
In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed the king of united Italy.

Q13:  On which of the following modern aspects did the new Germany place a strong emphasis?
I. Currency
II. Banking
III. Legal system
IV. Demography
(a) 
Only I and II are correct.
(b) Only II and III are correct.
(c) Only III and IV are correct.
(d) Only I, II, and III are correct.             (2022)
Ans:
(d)
The new German state placed a strong emphasis on modernizing the currency, banking, legal, and judicial systems.

Q14: Which one of the following Italian states was ruled by an Italian princely house?
(a) 
Papal State
(b) Lombardy
(c) Venetia
(d) Sardinia-Piedmont       (2022)
Ans:
(d)
During the middle of the nineteenth century, Italy was divided into seven states of which only Sardinia- Piedmont was ruled by an Italian princely house.

Q15: Identify the characteristics of Cavour among the following and choose the correct option:
I. He was an Italian statesman.
II. He spoke French much better than Italian.
III. He was a tactful diplomat.
IV. He belonged to a Royal family.
(a) 
Only I and II are correct.
(b) Only I, II, and III are correct.
(c) Only II, III, and IV are correct.
(d) Only I, II, and IV are correct.       (2022)
Ans: 
(b)
Cavour did not belong to a Royal family. He belonged to a family that had served the House of Savoy as soldiers and officials.

2021

Q1: Describe the major outcomes of the French Revolution of 1789.   (2021 C)

Ans:

  • It resulted in the transfer of power from King Louis XVI to the National Assembly.
  • A collective identity of the people developed.
  • The Estate General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
  • Jacobin clubs were set up for the propagation of liberal thoughts.
  • A new French Flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the former royal standard.
  • Regional dialects were discouraged and French became the common language of the nation.

2020

Q1: Which of the following revolutions is called as the first expression of 'Nationalism'?
(a)
French Revolution
(b) Russian Revolution
(c) Glorious Revolution
(d) The Revolution of the Liberals [2020]
Ans: 
(a)
French Revolution

Q2: Examine the significance of the Statue of Liberty in Frederic Sorrieu's paintings, ‘The Dream of Worldwide Democratic and Social Republics'. [2020]
Ans: Statue of liberty is personified as women bearing the Torch of Enlightenment in one hand and the Charter of the Rights in the other.

Q3: Who among the following remarked “When France sneezes, the rest of Europe catches cold”?
(a)
Lord Byron
(b) Metternich
(c) Johann Herder
(d) Napoleon                    [2020]
Ans: 
(b)
The July Revolution of France sparked an uprising in Brussels and later in other parts of Europe,  Metternich remarked, 'When France sneezes, the rest of Europe catches cold'.

Q4:  How did the Greek War of Independence mobilize nationalist feelings among the educated elite across Europe? Explain    [2020]
Ans: 
Greek War of Independence mobilized the nationalist feelings in Europe in the following ways:
(i) Greece was viewed as a part of Europe that had been annexed by Ottomans and now needed to be liberated.
(ii) Greece was perceived as the foundation and cradle of civilization in Europe by poets and artists and this led to nationalist consciousness.
(iii) Greek nationalists received support from other Greeks living in exile.
(iv) Many Europeans had a natural sympathy for the ancient Greek civilization.
(v) Europeans and Greek nationalists were against the Muslim Empire.

Q5: Arrange the following events related to the formation of the nation-state of Britain in chronological order:
I. Act of Union between England and Scotland.
II. The English Parliament seized power from the Monarchy.
III. Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom.
IV. Catholic revolt against British dominance.
(a)
III - I - II - IV
(b) I - II - III - IV
(c) I V - I - II - III
(d) II - I - IV - III    [2020]
Ans:
(d)

Q6: Who among the following leaders formed a secret society called 'Young Italy’?
(a) 
Victor Emmanuel II
(b) Giuseppe Mazzini
(c) Count Cavour
(d) Giuseppe Garibaldi.   [2020]
Ans: 
(b)
Giuseppe Mazzini

Q7: Why was Otto Von Bismarck considered the chief architect of German unification? Choose the correct option from the following:
(a)
He allied with Italy and France for the unification process.
(b) He granted autonomy to Prussia with the Conservatives.
(c) He carried the nation-building process with the army and the bureaucracy.
(d) He carried liberal and Romantic scholars for cultural movement.    [2020]
Ans:
(c)
He carried the nation-building process with the army and the bureaucracy,

Question for Previous Year Questions: The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
Try yourself:Q8: Choose the correctly matched pair from the following:                                                                       [2020]
View Solution

Q9: Who was proclaimed as King of United Italy in 1861?     [2020]

Ans: Victor Emmanuel II

2019


Q1:  Which nation was identifiable in the revolutionary tricolour in Sorrieu's utopian vision? [Al 2019]
Ans: France

Q2:  How had the Napoleonic code been exported to the regions under French control? Explain with examples. [CBSE Delhi 2019]
Ans:

  • The Napoleonic Code was drafted by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered into force in 1804. 
  • The Code was a major step in replacing the previous patchwork of feudal laws. It has a special place as it is one of the few documents that have influenced the whole world. 
  • The Napoleonic Code was not the first legal code to be established in a European country with a civil legal system; it was preceded by many but it was, however, the first modern legal code to be adopted with a pan-European scope, and it strongly influenced the law of many of the countries formed during and after the Napoleonic Wars. 
  • The Napoleonic Code influenced developing countries outside Europe, especially in the Middle East, attempting to modernize their countries through legal reforms.

Q3: Describe the role of Otto von Bismarck in the making of Germany.   [2019]
Ans: 
After Napoleon’s defeat in 1815, many Germans wanted an independent Germany. The King of Prussia, Kaiser William I, chose Chief Minister Bismarck to unify Germany under the rule of Prussia.  

  • Bismarck was a fearless leader and believed in the urgent need for unification in Germany. He started with the modernization of the army, defying the parliament in collecting taxes. His policy came to be known as the ‘Blood; and Iron’ policy and earned him the nickname of the ‘Iron; Chancellor’. 
  • Bismarck made great efforts to improve the army, With the improved army, he encouraged the German; population of Schleswig and Holstein to revolt against their ruler Denmark. In 1864, Bismarck joined hands with Austria against Denmark. Prussia also defeated Austria and formed the North German Confederation.
  • Bismarck was able to keep Italy, Russia (and Napoleon III, of France till the end) out of war through diplomacy and negotiations. : 
  • The unification of Germany was completed under Kaiser William I in 1871. Soon Germany emerged as the leading power in Europe, building a colonial empire to further German economic interest and increase German influence in the world.

2018 & Rest of Year Questions

Q1: Who founded the secret society, 'Young Italy' during the 1830s?  [Delhi 2017]
Ans: During the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini had sought to put together a coherent program for a unitary Italian Republic. He formed a secret society called Young Italy.

Q2: What was the main aim of revolutionaries of Europe during the years following 1815?    [2016]
Ans: The main aim of the revolutionaries of Europe in the years following 1815, was to oppose a monarchial form of government It emphasized the notion of a united community which would have equal rights under a constitution.

Q3: What was the main aim of the Treaty of Vienna 1815?   [2016]
Ans: The main aim of the Treaty of Vienna (1815) was to undo, most of the changes that had come about in Europe during the Napoleonic wars.

Q4: What was the strong demand of the emerging middle classes in Europe during the nineteenth century?  [2016]
Ans: Freedom of the markets and abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods.

Q5: Who was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles in January 1871?  [2016]
Ans: Kaiser William-I of Prussia.

Q6: What do you understand by Liberalism? Describe their ideas in the political, social, and economic spheres. Ideas of national unity in early-nineteenth-century Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism. What did it mean for the middle class in France? Explain. [CBSE Sample Question Paper 2018]
Ans:
(1) The term ‘liberalism’ is derived from the Latin word liber, meaning free. Thus, for the new middle classes, liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law.Class 10 History Chapter 1 Previous Year Questions - The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

(2)
(a) Political ideas
(i) It emphasized the concept of government by consent.
(ii) Since the French Revolution, liberalism stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitution and representative government through Parliament.
(iii) It did not necessarily stand for universal suffrage. Thus in the 19th and 20th centuries, movements were demanding equal political rights.
(b) Social ideas: The liberals supported the abolition of discrimination based on birth.
(c) Economic ideas: It supported the freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital. During the 19th Century, this was a strong demand for the emerging middle classes.

Q7: Why did big European powers meet in Berlin in 1885?    [CBSE 2018]
Ans: The big European powers met in Berlin in 1885 to divide Africa among themselves. They wanted to divide Africa to gain control over the continent's natural resources for the development of their industries.

Q8: Which power dominated the nation-building process in Germany?    [CBSE 2018, Sample Paper]
Ans: Prussian State.

Q9: Describe any three conditions that led to the formation of the British Nation-State. [CBSE Foreign-2017]

OR

In Britain, the formation of the nation-state was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution. Validate the statement with relevant arguments.    [CBSE Foreign-2017]
Ans: The conditions that led to the formation of the British Nation State were:
(a) The primary identities of the people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones - such as English, Welsh, Scot, or Irish. All of these ethnic groups had their own cultural and political traditions. But as the English nation steadily grew in wealth, importance, and power, it was able to extend its influence over the other nations of the islands.
(b) The English Parliament, which had seized power from the monarchy in 1688 at the end of a protracted conflict, was the instrument through which a nation-state, with England at its centre, came to be forged.
(c) The Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland that resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’ meant, in effect, that England was able to impose its influence on Scotland. The British parliament was henceforth dominated by its English members.

Q10: ‘Ideas of national unity in the early nineteenth century Europe was closely allied to the ideology of liberalism’. Support the statement with arguments.    [CBSE Sample Paper-2017, CBSE (Comp) 2017]
Ans: Liberalism
Liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law. Politically, it emphasized the concept of government by consent.
(a) Derived from’ liber’ means free.
(b) Stood for freedom for all and equality for all before the law.
(c) Politically -Government by consent.
(d) Universal suffrage, the right to vote for all.
(e) The French Revolution stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitution, and a representative government through parliament.
(f) Struggles for equal political rights.
(g) It stressed on inviolability of private property.
(h) Freedom of markets and abolition of state restrictions.

Q11: Describe any three Economic hardships faced by Europe in the 1930s.

OR

Describe the great economic hardship that prevailed in Europe during the 1830s.

OR

The 1830s were years of great economic hardship in Europe. Explain how?

OR

“The decade of 1830 had brought great economic hardship in Europe”. Support the statement with arguments.    [CBSE (A1) 2017]
Ans: Economic hardships faced by Europe in the 1830s :
(a) There was an enormous increase in population all over Europe. In most countries, there were more seekers of jobs than employment.
(b) Population from rural areas migrated to the cities to live in overcrowded slums.
(c) Small producers in towns were often faced with stiff competition from imports of cheap machine-made goods from England.
(d) In those regions of Europe where the aristocracy still enjoyed power, peasants struggled under the burden of feudal dues and obligations.
(e) The rise of food prices or a year of bad harvest led to widespread pauperism in towns and countries.

Q12: ‘The idealistic liberal-democratic sentiment of nationalism became a narrow creed with limited ends.’ Support the statement in the context of Balkan nationalism in the early 19th century.    [CBSE Sample Paper-2017]
Ans: The Balkans comprised modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro.
(a) The disintegration of the ruling Ottoman Empire and the spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism made this area explosive.
(b) The European subject nationalities started breaking from their control to declare independence.
(c) The Balkan revolutionaries’ acts were directed to gain back the long-lost independence.
(d) The Balkan States were fiercely jealous of each other and wanted to gain more territory at the expense of the other.
(e) There was intense rivalry among the European powers over trade, colonies, naval might, and military might. European powers such as Russia, Germany, England, and Austro-Hungary were keen on opposing the hold of other powers over the Balkans to extend their own area of control.
(f) All these events ultimately triggered the First World War (1914).

Q13: To which country did the artist Frederic Sorrieu belong?    [CBSE (Comptt.) 2017]
Ans: France

Q14: Why did French artist, Frederic Sorrieu prepare a series of prints based on democratic and socialist republics in 1848?    [CBSE Sample Paper-2017]
Ans: To depict his Utopian vision where the people of the world are grouped as distinct nations, identified through the flag and national costumes offering homage to the Statue of Liberty.

Q15: What was the strong demand for the emerging middle classes in Europe during the nineteenth century?    [CBSE (F) 2016]
Ans: The strong demand for emerging middle classes in Europe was the freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.

Q16: What was the objective of the Treaty of Vienna? OR What was the main aim of the Treaty of Vienna 1815?    [CBSE (F) 2016]
Ans: The aim was to reverse most of the changes that had come about in Europe during the Napoleonic War. The Bourbon dynasty, which had been deposed during the French Revolution, was restored to power.

Q17: What was the meaning of liberalism in the early 19th century in Europe?    [CBSE F 2016]
Ans: The term liberalism is derived from the Latin word liber meaning free. Thus for the new middle classes, liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law. Politically, it emphasized the concept of government by consent.

Q18: What Metternich remark about events in France?   [CBSE 2016]
Ans: Metternich remarked, “When France sneezes, the rest of Europe catches a cold”.

Q19: What was the main aim of revolutionaries of Europe during the years following 1815?    [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans: To oppose monarchical forms of government.

Q20: Name the Treaty of 1832 that recognized Greece as an independent nation.    [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans: Treaty of 1832: Constantinople Treaty.

Q21: Name the event that mobilized nationalist feelings among the educated elite across Europe in 1830-1848.    [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans: Event that mobilized nationalist feelings: The Greek War of Independence.

Q22: Who was proclaimed the King of United Italy in 1861?    [CBSE (AI) 2016]
Ans: Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed King of United Italy in 1861.

Q23: What is an Allegory? State any one example to clarify the same.    [ CBSE Sample Paper-2016]
Ans: Allegory: When an abstract idea for instance; greed, envy, freedom, or liberty is expressed through a person or a thing. It is symbolic.
Examples. Statue of Liberty, Marianne, Germania, etc.

Q24: Who remarked, “When France sneezes the rest of Europe catches a cold”.    [CBSE (AI) 2016]
Ans: Metternich.

Q25: Who was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles in January 1871?    [CBSE (AI) 2016]
Ans: Kaiser William I of Prussia was proclaimed German Emperor.

Q26: Explain the role of romanticism in the national feeling.
OR
“The development of nationalism did not come about only through wars and territorial expansion. Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation.” Elaborate upon the statement.    [ CBSE Sample Paper-2016]
Ans: Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation; art and poetry, stories and music. They all helped express and shape nationalist feelings.
(a) Romantic artists and poets created a sense of shared collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of a nation.
(b) It was through folk songs, folk poetry, and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation was popularised.
(c) Emphasis was given to the vernacular language and the collection of folklore to carry the modern nationalist message to large audiences.

Q27: How had the female figures become an allegory of the nation during the nineteenth century in Europe? Analyze.    [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans: The female figures as an allegory of the nation:
(a) Artists found a way to represent a country in the form of a person.
(b) Then nations were portrayed as female figures.
(c) The female figure was chosen to personify the nation. It did not stand for any particular woman in real life.
(d) It gave the abstract idea of the nation a concrete form.
(e) Thus, the female figure became an allegory of the nation.
(f) During the French Revolution, artists used the female allegory to portray ideas such as Liberty, Justice, and the Republic.

Q28: “Culture had played an important role in the development of nationalism in Europe during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.” Support the statement with examples.    [CBSE (F) 2016]
Ans: Culture
(a) Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation, art and poetry, stories and music helped to express and shape nationalist feelings.
(b) Emotions, intuition, and mystical feelings were not focused.
(c) Their effort was to share collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of a nation.
(d) They criticized the glorification of reason and science.
(e) German philosopher Johann Gottfried popularized the true spirit of the nation through folksongs, folk poetry, and folk dance.

Q29: Describe the explosive conditions prevailing in the Balkans after 1871 in Europe.  (2018)
Ans: After 1871, the Balkans became a region of explosive conditions in Europe due to several factors:

  • One of the main reasons was the spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans. The subject nationalities of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans, such as the Serbs, Bulgarians, and Greeks, started to assert their national identities and demand independence or political rights based on their nationality. They used historical arguments to prove that they had once been independent but had been subjugated by foreign powers.
  • This led to a series of rebellions and uprisings in the Balkans as these nationalities sought to regain their long-lost independence. The disintegration of the Ottoman Empire further fueled these aspirations for independence.
  • The intense conflicts in the Balkans were also driven by the rivalries among the European powers. Russia, Germany, England, and Austro-Hungary all had their own imperialistic aims in the region. They competed for trade, colonies, and naval and military dominance, leading to a complex web of alliances and rivalries.
  • The Balkan states themselves were fiercely jealous of each other and sought to expand their territories at the expense of their neighbours. This territorial competition added another layer of tension and conflict in the region.
  • These explosive conditions ultimately culminated in the outbreak of the First World War, as the rivalries and conflicts in the Balkans became intertwined with the larger power struggles among the European nations.
  • Overall, the Balkans after 1871 were marked by intense nationalism, territorial disputes, and the rivalries of the European powers, making the region highly volatile and prone to conflict.

Q30: Analyse the measures and practices introduced by the French Revolution to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.
Or
Describe any five steps that were taken by the French Revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity among the French people.    [CBSE 2017]
Ans: The following steps were taken by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity among the French people :
(a) The ideas of the fatherland (la Patrie) and the citizen (le citoyen) were introduced.
(b) A new French flag, the tri-colour, was chosen to replace the earlier royal standard.
(c) The Estates-General was renamed as the National Assembly.
(d) New hymns were composed, oaths were taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of the nation.
(e) A centralized administrative system was established.
(f) Uniform laws for all citizens were formulated.
(g) Internal customs duties and dues were abolished.
(h) A uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
(i) French, as it was written and spoken in Paris, became the common language of the nation. Regional dialects were discouraged.
(j) It was decided that the French nation would liberate the peoples of Europe from despotism, and help other peoples to become nations.

Q31: Who hosted ‘Vienna Congress’ in 1815? Analyze the main changes brought by the ‘Vienna Treaty.’
OR
Describe the main clauses of the Treaty of Vienna of 1815.    [CBSE Delhi 2017]

Ans: The main clauses of the Treaty of Vienna signed in 1815 were: Vienna Congress: The Congress was hosted by the Austrian Chancellor “Duke Metternich”.
(a) The Bourbon dynasty which had been deposed during the French Revolution was restored to power.
(b) France lost the territories it had annexed under Napoleon.
(c) A series of states were set up on the boundaries of France to prevent French extension in the future.
(d) Kingdom of the Netherlands including Belgium was set up.
(e) Prussia was given important new territories on its western frontiers.

Q32: Explain the nation-building process of Germany.    [CBSE Sample Paper 2017]
OR
Examine the Nation-State Building process in Germany after 1848.    [CBSE (F) 2017, CBSE (Comptt.) 2017]
Ans: German Unification
(a) After 1848, nationalism in Europe moved away from its association with democracy and revolution.
(b) Nationalist sentiments were often mobilized by conservatives for promoting state power and achieving political domination over Europe.
(c) Nationalist feelings were widespread among middle-class Germans in the 19th Century.
(d) In 1848 they tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation-state governed by an elected parliament.
(e) This liberal initiative to nation-building was repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military, supported by the large landowners (called Junkers) of Prussia.
(f) Prussia took on the leadership of Otto von Bismarck, who became the architect of this process.
(g) Three wars over seven years - with Austria, Denmark, and France - ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification.
(h) In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed German Emperor.

Q33: “The decade of 1830 had brought great economic hardship in Europe.” Support that statement with arguments.

OR

Why was the decade of the 1830s known as the great economic hardship in Europe? Explain any three reasons.

OR

Describe any three economic hardships faced by Europe in the 1830s.    [CBSE 2016]
Ans: The 1830s were the years of great economic hardship in Europe due to the following reasons;
(a) There was an enormous increase in population all over Europe.
(b) There were more seekers of jobs than employment.
(c) People migrated from rural areas to the cities to live in overcrowded slums.
(d) There was stiff competition between the products of small producers and machine-made products imported from England.
(e) Peasants’ condition was bad due to the burden of feudal dues and obligations.
(f) The prices of food had risen due to a bad harvest. This resulted in widespread pauperism in town and country.

Q34: Analyze the measures and practices introduced by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.    [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans: Measures and practices introduced by the French revolutionaries for collective identity:
(a) The ideas of la Patrie and le citoyen are emphasized.
(b) A new French flag, the tri-color was chosen.
(c) The Estate General was elected by the active citizens.
(d) The elected body of active citizens renamed as National Assembly.
(e) New hymns were composed.
(f) Oaths were taken.

(g) Martyrs commemorated.
(h) A centralized administrative system was implemented.
(i) Formulated uniform laws.
(j) A uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
(k) French became the common language of the nation.

Q35: “Napoleon had destroyed democracy in France but in the administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient.” Analyze the statement with arguments.    [CBSE (AI) 2016]
Ans: Napoleon had destroyed democracy in France but in the administrative field, he had incorporated revolutionary principles to make the whole system more rational and efficient.
(a) All privileges based on birth were removed.
(b) He had established equality before the law.
(c) Right to property was given.
(d) Simplified administrative divisions were made.
(e) The feudal system was abolished and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
(f) Guild restrictions were removed.
(g) Transport and communication systems were improved.

Q36: “Nationalism no longer retained its idealistic liberal democratic sentiment by the last quarter of the nineteenth century in Europe.” Analyze the statement with examples. [CBSE (F) 2016]
Ans: Nationalism in Europe- The Balkans:
(a) During this period, nationalist groups become increasingly intolerant of each other.
(b) Manipulations of the nationalist aspirations were there.
(c) The Balkan was under the control of the Ottoman Empire.
(d) Ideas of romantic nationalism spread in the Balkan.
(e) They claimed independence or political rights on nationality and used history to prove that they had once been independent but had subsequently been subjugated by foreign domination.
(f) Russia, Germany, England, Austria-hungry were keen on countering the hold of other powers over the Balkans.
(g) This led to a series of wars in the region and finally the First World War.

The document Class 10 History Chapter 1 Previous Year Questions - The Rise of Nationalism in Europe is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
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FAQs on Class 10 History Chapter 1 Previous Year Questions - The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

1. What factors contributed to the rise of nationalism in Europe during the 19th century?
Ans. Nationalism in Europe during the 19th century was fueled by factors such as the French Revolution, the spread of Enlightenment ideas, the creation of nation-states, and cultural movements that emphasized a sense of national identity.
2. How did nationalism impact the political landscape of Europe in the 19th century?
Ans. Nationalism in Europe led to the unification of Italy and Germany, the breakup of multinational empires like the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and the emergence of independent nation-states based on shared language, culture, and history.
3. What role did key figures like Giuseppe Garibaldi and Otto von Bismarck play in the rise of nationalism in Europe?
Ans. Giuseppe Garibaldi played a crucial role in the unification of Italy through his military campaigns, while Otto von Bismarck orchestrated the unification of Germany through diplomacy and warfare, contributing significantly to the rise of nationalism in Europe.
4. How did nationalism impact the balance of power in Europe during the 19th century?
Ans. The rise of nationalism in Europe led to conflicts and wars as nations sought to assert their independence and expand their territories, ultimately shifting the balance of power and reshaping the political map of the continent.
5. What were some of the challenges faced by nationalist movements in Europe during the 19th century?
Ans. Nationalist movements in Europe faced opposition from conservative forces, resistance from multinational empires, and internal divisions based on regional identities or conflicting national aspirations, posing challenges to the realization of their goals.
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