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Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Previous Year Questions - Power Sharing

2023

Q1: Two statements are given below as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option:
Assertion (A): Sri Lanka adopted 'Tamil' as the official language of the State.
Reason (R): The Government of Sri Lanka adopted a series of majoritarian measures.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is true but (R) is false.
(d) (A) is false but (R) is true.    (2023)
Ans: (d)
(A) is false but (R) is true. 
Sri Lanka adopted 'Sinhala' as the official language.

Question for Previous Year Questions: Power-sharing
Try yourself:Q2: Two statements are given below as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option.
Assertion (A): Elections are the spirit of democracy.
Reason (R): Elections expand Political participation.                                                                                       (2023)
View Solution

Q3:  Consider the following statements on Power Sharing and choose the correct option.

I. It deepens democracy.
II. It helps to reduce conflicts among social groups.
III. It is a way to ensure political stability.
IV. It brings socio-economic struggles.
(a) I, II and III
(b) III, Ill and IV
(c) I, III and IV
(d) I, II and IV
Ans:
(a)
I, II and III

Q4: Consider the following statements on Power Sharing and choose the correct option :
(I) Majoritarianism is the real spirit of democracy.
(II) It creates balance and harmony in different groups.
(III) It reduces the possibility of conflict among social groups.
(IV) Power sharing is the essence of democracy.
(a) I, II and III
(b) II, III and IV
(c) I, III and IV
(d) I, II and IV       (2023)
Ans:
(b)
II, III and IV

2022

Q1: Which one of the following elements is NOT included in the Belgium model?
(a) Dutch and French speaking ministers shall be equal in the government.
(b) Many powers of the central government have been given to state governments.
(c) Brussels has a separate government in which both the communities have equal representation.
(d) There is a community government which has special powers of administration. (Term-1,2021-22)
Ans:
(d)
Community government in Belgium has the power regarding cultural, educational and language-related issues.

Q2: Two statements are given below as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the most appropriate option.
Assertion (A): Majority community is dominant in a few democratic states.
Reason (R): Dominance can undermine the unity of the country.
(a) Both A and R are correct, and R is the correct explanation of the A.
(b) Both A and R are correct, but R is not the correct explanation of the A.
(c) A is correct, but R is incorrect.
(d) A is incorrect, but R is correct. (Term-1, 2021-22)
Ans: 
(b)
There are some countries in which majority community is dominant, like Sri Lanka. The reason is also correct, but they do not relate.

Q3: Two statements are given below as Assertion (A)  and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the most appropriate option.
Assertion (A): The distrust between Sinhalese and  Tamil communities turned into widespread conflict in Sri Lanka
Reason (R): 1956 Act recognised Sinhala as the only official language.
(a) Both A and R are correct, and R is the correct explanation of the A.
(b) Both A and R are correct, but R is not the correct explanation of the A.
(c) A is correct, but R is incorrect.
(d) A is incorrect, but R is correct. (Term-1, 2021-22)
Ans:
(a)
1956 Act recognised Sinhala as the only official language that led to distrust between Sinhalese and Tamil communities, which turned into widespread conflict in Sri Lanka.

Q4: Two statements are given below as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the most appropriate option.
Assertion (A): Power-sharing is good.
Reason (R): It helps to reduce the possibility of conflicts between social groups.
(a) Both A and R are correct, and R is the correct explanation of the A.
(b) Both A and R are correct, but R is not the correct explanation of the A.
(c) A is correct, but R is incorrect.
(d) A is incorrect, but R is correct. (Term-1, 2021-22)
Ans:
(a)
Power-sharing is good for democracy as it helps to reduce the possibility of conflicts between social groups.

Question for Previous Year Questions: Power-sharing
Try yourself:Q5: Identify Horizontal power-sharing arrangements among the following in modern democracies.      (Term-1, 2021-22)
View Solution

Q6: What is NOT an integral part of the government?

(a) Office of the Prime Minister
(b) Legislature
(c) Executive
(d) Judiciary (Term-1,2021-22)
Ans:
(a)
Office of the Prime Minister.

2021

Q1: 59 percent of the total population of Belgium live in the ______ region. (2021 C)
Ans: 59 percent of the total population of Belgium live in the Flemish region.

Q2: How did the Belgium government accommodate the social differences? (2021 C)
Ans: Belgium model for the accommodation of diversities: 
(i) Though the Dutch were in majority in the country, the French and Dutch-speaking population was given equal representation in the central government. 
(ii) Belgium was declared as a Federal state and thus, state governments were given important powers. 
(iii) The state governments did not act as a subordinate to the central government.

2020

Q1: Which one of the following is a major caste group of Sri Lanka?
(a) Christian and Tamil
(b) Buddhist and Hindu
(c) Sinhali and Tamil
(d) Sinhali and Christian (2020)
Ans:
(b)
Buddhist and Hindu.

Q2: Under which of the following is power shared in the 'Community Government’ of Belgium?
(a) Different social groups
(b) Different organs of government
(c) Central and State government
(d) State government and Community government (2020)
Ans: 
(a)
Different social groups.

Q3: State any one step taken in Belgium to rule out the problem of regional differences and cultural diversities. (2020)
Ans: Equal representation in the center.

Q4: The Belgium model of ‘Community government’ worked well because_______ (2020 C)
Ans: The Belgium model of 'Community government' worked well because it recognized the belonging of individuals to one language community.

Q5: Describe the horizontal power-sharing arrangements. (2020)
Ans: Arrangements of power in horizontal power-sharing are as follows: 
(i) Power is shared among different organs of the government, such as the legislature, executive and judiciary, 
(ii) Different organs of the government exercise different powers. 
(iii) This arrangement is called a system of checks and balances.

2019

Q1: Why was there an acute problem in Brussels during 1950s and 1960s between the two communities? (2019 C)
Ans: In Belgium, the minority French-speaking community was richer than the Dutch-speaking people. This was resented by the Dutch-speaking community. This led to acute problems in Brussels during the 1950s and 1960s  between these two communities.

Q2: Explain the major repercussions of passing Sinhala as the only official language in Sri Lanka in 1956. (2019 C)
Ans: The major repercussion of passing Sinhala as the only official language in Sri Lanka in 1956 was the increase in the feeling of alienation among the Sri Lankan Tamils. This led to the launch of parties and struggles for the recognition of Tamil as an official language.

Q3: Explain any one benefit of 'Power-Sharing'. (AI2019)
Ans: Power-sharing helps to reduce the possibility of conflicts between different social groups. A social conflict often leads to violence and political instability. Power sharing helps to ensure the stability of political order.

Q5: How did the idea of power-sharing emerge? Explain different forms that have common arrangements of power-sharing.  (Delhi 2019)
Ans: The idea of power-sharing has emerged contrary to the notions of undivided political power. Earlier, it was believed that all powers of a government must reside in one person or group located in one place. It was felt that if the power to decide was dispersed, it would not be possible to make quick decisions and enforce them. However, these notions have changed with the emergence of democracy.
Different forms that have common arrangements of Power Sharing:
(i) Horizontal power-sharing: Power is shared among different arms of the government, such as the legislature, executive, and judiciary. This ensures that none of the arms of the government has unlimited power. Each organ acts as a check for the others. This leads to a balance of power among various institutions.
(ii) Vertical power-sharing Power-sharing among governments at different levels. A government for the entire country is called a ‘Central or Union or Federal government’. The government in a particular state is called the 'State government’ in India. In such cases, the constitution clearly lays down the powers of different levels of government.
(iii) Empowering social groups: Power may also be shared among different social groups such as the religious and linguistic groups. The system of ‘reserved constituencies’ in assemblies and the Parliament of our country is an example of empowering minority communities.
(iv) Political parties and pressure groups and movement: Power-sharing is also seen in the way political parties, pressure groups, and social movements control or influence those in power. Such competition ensures that power does not remain in one hand. In the long run, power is shared among different political parties that represent different ideologies and social groups.

2018 & Rest of Years Questions

Q1: Explain the three measures taken by Sri Lanka, as per the Act passed in 1956. (2017)
Ans: The three measures taken by Sri Lanka, as per the Act passed in 1956, are as follows:
(i) The government passed an Act to recognize Sinhala as the only official language, disregarding Tamil.
(ii) Preferential politics were followed, favouring Sinhala applicants for university positions and government jobs.
(iii) A new Constitution stipulated that the state shall protect and foster Buddhism. 

Q2: How and when was Sinhala recognized as the official language of Sri Lanka?   (2016)
Ans: Sinhala was recognized as the official language of Sri Lanka by passing an Act in 1956.

Q3: What is the prudential reason behind power-sharing? (2016)
Ans: The prudential reason behind power-sharing is that it helps to prevent the concentration of power in the hands of a single individual or group, which can lead to authoritarianism and oppression.

Q4: What does 'the system of checks and balances' ensure in power-sharing? (2016)
Ans: The system of checks and balances ensures that no single individual or institution can exercise unlimited power. It helps to prevent the abuse of power and protects the rights and interests of different groups within a society.

Q5: Mention any one characteristic of power-sharing. (2016)
Ans: One characteristic of power-sharing is the sharing of power between different levels of government or between different communities or groups within a society.

Q6: How is the ethnic composition of Belgium very complex? Explain. (2016)
Ans: The ethnic composition of Belgium is complex due to the following reasons:
(i) 59% of the total population lives in the Flemish region and speaks Dutch.
(ii) 40% of the population lives in the Wallonia region and speaks French.
(iii) Only 1% of Belgians speak German.
(iv) In the capital city Brussels, 80% of the population speaks French while 20% speaks Dutch. 

Q7: How did Sri Lanka and the Belgium government try to solve the ethnic problem? (2016)
Ans: Sri Lanka and the Belgium government tried to solve the ethnic problem in different ways:
(i) The Belgium government respected the feelings and interests of different communities and regions, establishing a federal structure and power-sharing between the Union Government and its constituent units.
(ii) Sri Lanka adopted majoritarianism, passing an Act in 1956 to recognize Sinhala as the only official language, favoring Sinhala applicants for positions, and protecting and fostering Buddhism through the Constitution. 

Q8: "Attempts at forced integration often sow the seeds of disintegration". Support the statement with suitable arguments. (2016)
Ans: Forced integration can lead to disintegration due to the following reasons:
(i) Integration based on force can generate feelings of grudge and disagreement among different regions or communities.
(ii) Division of power and sharing of resources between regions often creates fears of domination.
(iii) People want to maintain their autonomy and not be pushed aside by others.
(iv) Examples like the breakdown of the USSR into different countries show the negative consequences of forced integration. Therefore, integration should be based on harmonious and amicable terms, rather than force. 

Q9: "Sharing of powers makes a country more powerful and united." Do you agree with this statement and why? (2016)
Ans: Yes, I agree with the statement that the sharing of powers makes a country more powerful and united. This is because:
(i) Power-sharing ensures that no single community or group dominates the decision-making process, promoting inclusivity and fairness.
(ii) It allows for the representation of diverse interests and perspectives, leading to better policies and governance.
(iii) Power-sharing can prevent the marginalization of certain communities or regions, reducing conflicts and promoting social cohesion.
(iv) By distributing power, it strengthens the democratic principles of participation, accountability, and checks and balances.

Q10: Why is power-sharing necessary in democracy? Explain. (2016)
Ans: (i) The first reason is that power-sharing helps to reduce the possibility of conflicts between social groups.
(ii) Power-sharing is a good way to ensure the stability of political order as social conflict often leads to violence and political instability.
(iii) Imposing the will of the majority community over others may look like an attractive option in the short run, but in the long run, it undermines the unity of the nation.
(iv) Tyranny of the majority is not only oppressive for the minority but it also brings ruin to the majority.
(v) Another important reason is that the very spirit of democracy is power-sharing. A democratic rule involves sharing of power with those affected by its exercise, and who have to live with its effects. People have a right to be consulted on how they are to be governed. A legitimate government is one where citizens, through participation, acquire a stake in the system.

Q11: Which factor is responsible for increasing the feeling of alienation among the Sri Lankan Tamil? (2015)
Ans: The majoritarianism policy in Sri Lanka, which favored the Sinhala community, is responsible for increasing the feeling of alienation among the Sri Lankan Tamils.

Q12: Which type of powers does the community government of Belgium enjoy? (2015)
Ans: The community government of Belgium enjoys cultural and educational powers, as well as issues related to language.

Q13: State any two measures adopted by Sri Lanka in 1956 as part of their majoritarian policy. (2015)
Ans: Two measures adopted by Sri Lanka in 1956 as part of their majoritarian policy were:
(i) They declared Sinhala as an official language.
(ii) They tried to promote their religion, Buddhism.

Q14: What system of power-sharing is called "Checks and Balances"? (2015)
Ans: The system of power-sharing called "Checks and Balances" refers to the distribution of powers among different institutions of government, where each institution has the ability to check the actions of the others to ensure a balance of power.

Q15: Give reasons why power-sharing is desirable. (2015)
Ans: Power-sharing is desirable due to the following reasons:
(i) It prevents the domination of one community or group over others, promoting equality and inclusivity.
(ii) It accommodates the diverse interests, perspectives, and identities of different communities, fostering social harmony.
(iii) Power-sharing reduces the chances of conflicts and tensions between communities or regions.
(iv) It strengthens democracy by ensuring participation, accountability, and checks and balances in decision-making.
(v) Power-sharing allows for better representation and responsiveness to the needs and aspirations of all citizens, leading to better governance. 

Q16: Who formed the majority in terms of population in Sri Lanka? (2014)
Ans: The Sinhala community formed the majority in terms of population in Sri Lanka.

Q17: What is the state religion of Sri Lanka? (2014)
Ans: The state religion of Sri Lanka is Buddhism.

Q18: In which city is the headquarters of the European Union located? (2014)
Ans: The headquarters of the European Union is located in Brussels.

The document Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Previous Year Questions - Power Sharing is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
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FAQs on Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Previous Year Questions - Power Sharing

1. What are the different forms of power-sharing discussed in Class 10 Power-sharing?
Ans. The different forms of power-sharing discussed in Class 10 Power-sharing are horizontal power-sharing, vertical power-sharing, and community power-sharing.
2. How does power-sharing contribute to a stable democracy?
Ans. Power-sharing contributes to a stable democracy by ensuring that no single group or individual dominates the decision-making process, leading to a more inclusive and representative government.
3. What are the advantages of power-sharing in a diverse country like India?
Ans. Power-sharing in a diverse country like India helps in promoting unity among different communities, reducing conflicts, ensuring equal representation, and safeguarding the interests of minority groups.
4. How does power-sharing help in reducing the chances of tyranny and dictatorship?
Ans. Power-sharing helps in reducing the chances of tyranny and dictatorship by dispersing power among different groups, making it difficult for any one group to establish absolute control over the government.
5. What are the limitations of power-sharing in ensuring effective governance?
Ans. Some limitations of power-sharing in ensuring effective governance include the potential for decision-making delays, difficulties in reaching consensus, and challenges in implementing policies that satisfy all parties involved.
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