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Class 10 History Chapter 2 Previous Year Questions - Nationalism in India

2023

Q1: Explain the implications of the 'First World War’ on the economic and political situation of India.    [2023, Al 2019]
Ans: 
The following were the effects of the First World War on the economic and political situation of India:
(i) More defence budget forcing countries to take war loans.
(ii) Shortages leading to prices doubling between 1913-18.
(iii) The custom duties and taxes were raised leading to a price rise.
(iv) Forced recruitment into the army led to discontent among the people.
(v) Acute shortage of food items because of crop failures.
(vi) Spread of the epidemic leading to the death of many people.

Q2:  “Mahatma Gandhi found in salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation.” Examine the statement in the context of the Civil Disobedience Movement.      [2023]
Ans:

  • Mahatma Gandhi found salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation. On 31st January 1930, he sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating wide-ranging eleven demands.
  • All classes of Indian society identified with the broad-ranging demands. The most stirring of all was the demand to abolish the salt tax.
  • Salt was something consumed by the rich and the poor alike, and it was one of the most essential items of food. The tax on salt and the government monopoly over its production revealed the most oppressive face of British rule.
  • In the Dandi march, the volunteers walked for 24 days, about 10 miles a day. Thousands came to hear Mahatma Gandhi wherever he stopped, and he told them what he meant by swaraj and urged them to peacefully defy the British.
  • On 6th April, he reached Dandi and ceremonially violated the law by manufacturing salt from boiling seawater. This marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement.
  • People were now asked not only to refuse cooperation with the British, as they had done in 1921-22, but also to break colonial laws.
  • Thousands of people broke the salt law in different parts of the country, manufactured salt, and demonstrated in front of government salt factories.
  • As the movement spread, foreign cloth was boycotted, and liquor shops were picketed. Peasants refused to pay revenue and chaukidari taxes, village officials resigned, and in many places, forest people violated forest laws.

Q3:  Examine the progress of the Civil Disobedience Movement among different strata of society.    [2023]
Ans: 
The following points analyse the progress made by different strata of society in the civil disobedience movement:

  • Rich Peasants: Their demand for a reduction in revenue was refused. For them, the fight for Swaraj was the fight against high revenue.
  • Poor Peasants: Economic depression made it very difficult for them to pay rent to the landlords. Congress did not support them in the rent campaign fearing that it would upset the rich farmers. 
  • Business Community: Their demand was for protection against exports and a fixed exchange ratio. To protect their business interests, they formed the Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920 and the Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) in 1927.
  • Workers: As the Congress was seen as close to the industrialists, the workers did not participate in the movement except in Nagpur. 
  • Women: There was large-scale participation of women in the Civil Disobedience Movement. They participated in the Salt March and other protest marches. They participated in picketing of foreign cloth and liquor shops.

Q4: Analyse the role of folklore and symbols in the revival of nationalism in India during the late 19th century.     [2023]
Ans: The role of folklore and symbols played a significant role in the revival of nationalism in India during the late 19th century. 

  • Folklore, songs, popular prints, and symbols served as powerful tools to mobilize and unite the Indian masses against British colonial rule. They helped in creating a sense of collective identity, pride, and resistance among the people.
  • Folklore, which includes folk tales, legends, and myths, played a crucial role in shaping the nationalist sentiment. These stories often highlighted the valour, bravery, and sacrifice of Indian heroes and warriors, instilling a sense of pride and nationalism among the people. 
  • They also emphasized the rich cultural heritage and history of India, reinforcing the idea of an independent and glorious past.
  • Songs and ballads, another form of folklore, were widely used to spread nationalist ideas and mobilize the masses. 
  • Nationalist poets and musicians composed songs that expressed the aspirations and struggles of the Indian people. These songs not only served as a medium of protest but also helped in creating a sense of unity and solidarity among the diverse Indian population.
  • Popular prints, such as posters and images, also played a significant role in shaping nationalist sentiment. These prints depicted iconic figures like Rani Lakshmibai, Bhagat Singh, and Mahatma Gandhi, who became symbols of resistance and inspiration for the people. They were widely circulated and displayed, serving as visual reminders of the nationalist struggle and invoking a sense of pride and determination.
  • Symbols, such as the national flag, the spinning wheel, and the slogan "Vande Mataram," became powerful representations of the nationalist movement. They were used to rally support and create a sense of collective identity among the people. The national flag, with its tricolour and the charkha, became a symbol of unity and freedom, while "Vande Mataram" became a rallying cry for the nationalist cause.

In conclusion, folklore and symbols played a crucial role in the revival of nationalism in India during the late 19th century. They helped in creating a sense of collective identity, pride, and resistance among the Indian masses, mobilizing them against British colonial rule. Folklore, songs, popular prints, and symbols served as powerful tools to spread nationalist ideas and inspire the people to fight for their independence.

2022

Q1: Mention any two causes that led to the Civil Disobedience Movement.   [Term-ll, 2021-22 C]

Ans: The Civil Disobedience Movement was triggered by several causes. Two of these causes are:

  • The constitution of the Simon Commission with no Indian representation. This was seen as a direct insult to the Indian people and their demands for self-governance.
  • The death of Lala Lajpat Rai, who was brutally beaten by the police while protesting against the Simon Commission, further inflamed the nationalist sentiment and led to a call for mass civil disobedience.

Q2: "Mahatma Gandhi launched a more broad-based movement in India by joining Khilafat Andolan." Explain the statement with any three arguments in the context of the Non-Cooperation Movement.    [Term-ll, 2021-22]
Ans: Mahatma Gandhi's decision to join the Khilafat Andolan played a crucial role in broadening the scope and appeal of the Non-Cooperation Movement in India. Here are three arguments explaining this statement:

  • Unity among different religious communities: The Khilafat Andolan was launched by Indian Muslims to protest against the British government's treatment of the Caliphate in Turkey. By supporting this movement, Gandhi aimed to create a united front of Hindus and Muslims against British rule. This helped in fostering communal harmony and strengthening the non-cooperation movement.
  • Expansion of the movement to rural areas: The Khilafat Andolan had a significant impact in rural areas, where the influence of religious leaders was strong. By aligning with the Khilafat cause, Gandhi was able to mobilize support and participation from the rural population, thus expanding the reach of the non-cooperation movement beyond urban centres.
  • Increased participation of youth and students: The Khilafat Andolan resonated strongly with the youth and students of India, who were deeply concerned about the fate of their fellow Muslims in Turkey. Gandhi's association with the Khilafat cause attracted a large number of young people to join the non-cooperation movement, bringing fresh energy and enthusiasm to the protests.

Q3: "The effects of the Non-Cooperation Movement on the economic front were more dramatic’’. Support the statement with examples.  [Term-ll, 2021-22]
Ans: The Non-Cooperation Movement had significant effects on the economic front in India. The statement that the effects were more dramatic can be supported by the following examples:

  • Boycott of foreign goods: As part of the non-cooperation movement, there was a widespread boycott of foreign goods. This led to a significant decrease in the import of foreign clothes between 1921 and 1922. The value of imported foreign clothes dropped from Rs 102 crores to Rs 57 crores during this period.
  • Picketing of liquor shops: The movement also involved the picketing of liquor shops, which were seen as symbols of British influence and exploitation. This led to a decrease in the consumption of foreign liquor, affecting the revenue generated from its sales.
  • Promotion of Indian textiles and handlooms: As people boycotted foreign clothes, there was a shift towards the use of Indian textiles and handloom products. The production of Indian textiles and handlooms increased, providing a boost to the domestic economy and empowering local artisans.

These examples demonstrate that the Non-Cooperation Movement had a significant impact on the economic front, leading to a reduction in the consumption of foreign goods and the promotion of Indian industries.

Q4: Read the following source carefully and answer the questions that follow.   [Term-ll, 2021-22]
Modern nationalism in Europe came to be associated with the formation of nation-states. It also meant a change in people’s understanding of who they were and what defined their identity and sense of belonging. New symbols and icons, new songs and ideas forged new links and redefined the boundaries of communities. In most countries, the making of this new national identity was a long process. How did this consciousness emerge in India?
In India and as in many other colonies, the growth of modern nationalism is intimately connected to the anti-colonial movement. People began discovering their unity in the process of their struggles with colonialism. The sense of being oppressed under colonialism provided a shared bond that tied many different groups together. But each class and group felt the effects of colonialism differently, their experiences were varied, and their notions of freedom were not always the same. The Congress under Mahatma Gandhi tried to forge these groups together within one movement. But the unity did not emerge without conflict.
(i) What was people's understanding of the nation?
Ans: People's understanding of nation was of modern states, having centralized powers exercising sovereign control over their own territory.
(ii) How was the growth of modern nationalism intimately connected to the anti-colonial movement?
Ans: The growth of modern nationalism in India was intimately connected to the anti-colonial movement. The sense of being oppressed under colonialism provided a shared bond that tied different groups together. The Congress under Mahatma Gandhi tried to unite these groups within one movement.
(iii) How did people in India develop a sense of collective belonging? Explain.
Ans: People in India developed a sense of collective belonging through their shared experiences and struggles with colonialism. The anti-colonial movement brought different groups together, despite their varied experiences and notions of freedom. The Congress under Mahatma Gandhi played a crucial role in forging these groups together within one movement, although there were conflicts along the way. Additionally, history, folklore, and new symbols and icons helped redefine the boundaries of communities and create a sense of collective belonging. 

Q5: Describe the spread of the Non-Cooperation Movement in the countryside. (Term-ll, 2021-22 C, 2015)
Ans: 

  • The spread of the Non-Cooperation Movement in the countryside involved various aspects. 
  • In Awadh, Baba Ramchandra led the peasants against talukdars and landlords who imposed exorbitantly high rents and other cesses on them. 
  • Peasants were also subjected to begar (forced labour) and had no security of tenure as tenants. 
  • The movement demanded a reduction in revenue, abolition of begar, and social boycott of oppressive landlords. 
  • Jawaharlal Nehru travelled to villages in Awadh to support the movement. 
  • However, the Congress leadership was not entirely satisfied with the forms the peasant movement took.

Q6: Mention any two causes that led to the Civil Disobedience Movement.     [2022]
Ans: The Civil Disobedience Movement was one of the most significant movements launched by Mahatma Gandhi in the course of India’s freedom struggle in 1930. The two main causes of the civil disobedience movement are: 

  • The constitution of Simon's commission with no Indians and the death of Lala Lajpat rai while protesting against the commission enraged the entire nation.
  • In the Lahore session, the demand of Purna Swaraj was declared, thus the civil disobedience movement was launched as the first step to fulfil this goal.

Q7: Why did Mahatma Gandhi decide to call off the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1931?   [Term-ll, 2021-22]
Ans: Mahatma Gandhi decided to call off the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1931 because he reached a pact, known as the Gandhi-Irwin Pact, with the British Viceroy, Lord Irwin. As part of this pact, the British agreed to release political prisoners, allow the participation of Congress in the Second Round Table Conference, and lift the ban on the salt satyagraha. Gandhi believed that this was a significant step forward and decided to suspend the movement to give negotiations a chance.

Q8: Read the given source below carefully and answer the questions that follow:    [Term-II,  2021-22]

The Independence Day Pledge, 26 January, 1930
‘We believe that it is the inalienable right of the Indian people, as of any other people, to have freedom and to enjoy the fruits of their toil and have the necessities of life, so that they may have full opportunities of growth. We believe also that if any government deprives people of these rights and oppresses them, the people have a further right to alter it or to abolish it. The British Government in India has not only deprived the Indian people of their freedom but has based itself on the exploitation of the masses, and has ruined India economically, politically, culturally and spiritually. We believe, therefore, that India must sever the British connection and attain Purna Swaraj or Complete Independence.’

(i) Why was freedom considered an inalienable right of the Indian people?
Ans: Freedom was considered an inalienable right of the Indian people because, like any other people, they believed they had the right to enjoy the fruits of their labour, have the necessities of life, and have full opportunities for growth. They believed that if any government deprived them of these rights and oppressed them, they had the right to alter or abolish it.

(ii) Why was Purna Swaraj considered essential by the people of India?
Ans: Purna Swaraj, or Complete Independence, was considered essential by the people of India because they believed that the British government in India had not only deprived them of their freedom but also based itself on the exploitation of the masses. They saw complete independence as the only way to free themselves from economic, political, cultural, and spiritual ruin caused by British rule.

(iii) Explain the significance of the Lahore Session of Congress (1930).
Ans: The Lahore Session of Congress (1930) was significant because, during this session, the Congress decided to observe 26th January 1930 as the Purna Swaraj Day or the day of Complete Independence. This declaration marked a significant milestone in the Indian freedom struggle and set the stage for the future demand for complete independence from British rule.

Q9:  “It was essential to preserve folk tradition in order to discover one’s national identity and restore a sense of pride in one’s past.” Support the statement in reference to India.       (Term-ll, 2021-22)
Ans:

(i) The nationalist histories urged the readers to take pride in India’s great achievements in the past and struggle to change the miserable conditions of life under British rule.
(ii) In the nineteenth century the Indian nationalists began recording folk songs sung by bards and they toured different villages to gather folk songs and legends.
(iii) They believe that tales give a true picture of traditional culture that has been corrupted and damaged by outsiders.
(iv) Indians began to look into the past to discover India’s greatest achievements.
(v) They wrote about the glorious developments in ancient times when art and architecture, science and mathematics, religion and culture, law and philosophy, crafts and trade flourished.

Q11: Read the case given below carefully and answer the questions that follow:   [Term-ll, 2021-22]
The Sense of Collective Belonging

This sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles. But there were also a variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured people's imagination. History and fiction, folklore and songs, and popular prints and symbols, all played a part in the making of nationalism. The identity of the nation, as you know, is most often symbolised in a figure or image. This helps create an image with which people can identify the nation. It was in the twentieth century, with the growth of nationalism, that the identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata. The image was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. In the 1870s he wrote 'Vande Mataram' as a hymn to the motherland. Later it was included in his novel Anandamath and widely sung during the Swadeshi movement in Bengal. Moved by the Swadeshi movement, Rabindranath Tagore painted his famous image of Bharat Mata. In this painting. Bharat Mata is portrayed as an ascetic figure; she is calm, composed, diving and spiritual. In subsequent years, the image of Bharat Mata acquired many different forms, as it circulated in popular prints, and was painted by different artists. Devotion to this mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one's nationalism.
(i) How did the 'nation' become a reality in the minds of people?
Ans: The 'nation' became a reality in the minds of people through united struggles and various cultural processes. The experience of united struggles helped people develop a sense of collective belonging and identify themselves as part of a nation. Additionally, history, fiction, folklore, songs, popular prints, and symbols played a significant role in shaping the idea of the nation and capturing people's imagination.

(ii) How did nationalism capture the people's imagination?
Ans: Nationalism captured the people's imagination through cultural processes such as history, fiction, folklore, songs, popular prints, and symbols. These cultural elements created a sense of identity and pride in one's nation. Nationalist leaders used these cultural tools to evoke emotions, inspire unity, and mobilize people for the cause of nationalism.

(iii) How did people belonging to different groups develop a sense of collective belonging?
Ans: People belonging to different groups developed a sense of collective belonging through shared experiences of united struggles and cultural processes. The use of folklore, songs, popular prints, symbols, and other cultural elements helped bridge the gaps between different groups and create a sense of unity and belonging. These cultural expressions provided a common ground for people from diverse backgrounds to connect and identify themselves as part of a larger collective.

2021

Q1: Describe any two Satyagraha movements launched by Gandhiji just after his return to India from South Africa.    [2021C]
Ans: After arriving in India, Mahatma Gandhi successfully organized satyagraha movements in various places. In 1917, he travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system. Then in 1917, he organized a satyagraha to support the peasants of the Kheda district of Gujarat. Affected by crop failure and a plague epidemic, the peasants of Kheda could not pay the revenue and were demanding that revenue collection be relaxed. In 1918, Mahatma Gandhi went to Ahmedabad to organize a satyagraha movement among cotton mill workers.

2020

Q1: Why did Gandhiji support the ‘Khilafat’ issue? Write the main reason.   [2020]
Ans: 
Gandhiji supported the 'Khilafat' issue as he saw it as an opportunity to bring Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement. He believed that by supporting the Khilafat cause, which aimed to protect the political and territorial rights of the Ottoman Caliphate, he could build a strong alliance between Hindus and Muslims and strengthen the fight for India's independence.

Q2: Name the two main leaders of the ‘Khilafat Committee’ formed in the year 1919.   [2020]
Ans: 
The two main leaders of the 'Khilafat Committee' formed in 1919 were Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali.

Q3: Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:   [2020]
Why Non-cooperation? 
In his famous book Hind Swaraj (1909), Mahatma Gandhi declared that British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians and had survived only because of this cooperation. If Indians refused to cooperate, British rule in India would collapse within a year, and Swaraj would come.
How could non-cooperation become a movement? Gandhiji proposed that the movement should unfold in stages. It should begin with the surrender of titles that the government awarded and a boycott of civil services, the army, police, courts and legislative councils, schools, and foreign goods.
Then, in case the government used repression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched. Through the summer of 1920, Mahatma Gandhi and Shaukat Ali toured extensively, mobilizing popular support for the movement.
(i) What was the weapon of Gandhiji to fight against the British Empire in India?
Ans: 
Satyagraha was the weapon of Gandhiji to fight peacefully against the British Empire in India.

(ii) How did the British survive in India?
Ans:
According to Mahatma Gandhi's book Hind Swaraj, British rule in India was established with the cooperation of Indians and survived only because of this cooperation.

(iii) Explain Gandhiji's idea for making non-cooperation a movement.
Ans: 
Gandhiji proposed that non-cooperation should unfold in stages. It should start with the surrender of titles awarded by the government and a boycott of civil services, the army, police, courts, legislative councils, schools, and foreign goods. If the government responded with repression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched. This idea aimed to mobilize popular support and escalate the movement gradually.

Question for Previous Year Questions: Nationalism in India
Try yourself:Q4:  Certain events are given below. Choose the appropriate chronological order:
I. Coming of Simon Commission to India
II. Demand of Purna Swaraj in Lahore Session of INC.
III. Government of India Act, 1919
IV. Champaran Satyagraha Choose the correct option:
View Solution

Q5: Why was the Inland Emigration Act of 1859 troublesome for plantation workers?   [2020]
Ans: The Inland Emigration Act of 1859 was troublesome for plantation workers because it severely restricted their freedom of movement. Under this act, plantation workers were required to obtain a pass or permission from their employers to leave the tea gardens. This made it difficult for them to visit their families or find alternate employment, effectively trapping them in exploitative working conditions.

Q6: Name the association formed by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar for Dalits in 1930.   [2020]
Ans: 
The association formed by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar for Dalits in 1930 is the Depressed Class Association.

Q7: Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:   [2020]
Source - Swaraj in the Plantations 
Workers too had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the notion of Swaraj. For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed, and it meant retaining a link with the village from which they had come. Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission, and in fact, they were rarely given such permission. When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations, and headed home. They believed that Gandhi Raj was coming, and everyone would be given land in their own villages. They, however, never reached their destination. Stranded on the way by a railway and steamer strike, they were caught by the police and brutally beaten up.

(i) Explain the understanding of Swaraj for plantation workers in Assam.
Ans: For plantation workers in Assam, Swaraj (freedom) meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space of the tea gardens where they were enclosed. It also meant retaining a link with their native village. These workers were restricted by the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, which prohibited them from leaving the tea gardens without permission. However, upon hearing about the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations, and headed home with the belief that Gandhi Raj (rule) was coming and everyone would be given land in their own villages.
(ii) Explain the Inland Emigration Act of 1859 as a barrier to the freedom of plantation workers.
Ans: The Inland Emigration Act of 1859 served as a barrier to the freedom of plantation workers in Assam. This act prohibited them from leaving the tea gardens without permission, which was rarely granted. It confined the workers to the plantations and restricted their movement, denying them the freedom to return to their native villages or explore opportunities outside the gardens.
(iii) Explain the main outcome of the participation of workers in the Non-Cooperation Movement. 
Ans: The participation of workers in the Non-Cooperation Movement had a significant outcome. Thousands of plantation workers in Assam defied the authorities, left the tea gardens, and headed home with the belief that Gandhi Raj was coming and they would be given land in their own villages. However, their journey was disrupted by a railway and steamer strike, leading to their arrest by the police and brutal beatings. Despite not reaching their destination, their participation showcased their defiance against the oppressive colonial rule and their aspirations for a better future.

Q8: Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:    [2020]
The movement in the towns 
The movement started with middle-class participation in the cities. Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices. The council elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras, where the Justice Party, the party of the non-Brahmans, felt that entering the council was one way of gaining some power-something that usually only Brahmans had access to.
The effects of non-cooperation on the economic front were more dramatic. Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922, its value dropping from Rs 102 crore to Rs 57 crore. In many places, merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. As the boycott movement spread and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.

Q9: Identify the appropriate reason from the following options, for the non-participation of industrial workers in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
(a) 
Industrialists were close to the Congress
(b) Britishers offered them good salaries
(c) They were reluctant towards the boycott of foreign goods
(d) Growth of Socialism               [2020]
Ans: (a)

Q10: Why did the Simon Commission come to India? Identify the correct reason from the following options.
(a)
To control the campaign against the British in cities
(b) To look into the functioning of the British
(c) To initiate salt law in India
(d) To suggest changes in the functioning of the constitutional system in India              [2020]
Ans: 
(d)
To suggest changes in the functioning of the constitutional system in India.

Q11: Read the sources given below and answer the questions that follow:    [2020]
A. The Salt March and The Civil Disobedience Movement Mahatma Gandhi found in salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation. On 31st January 1930, he sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands. Some of these were of general interest; while others were specific demands of different classes, from industrialists to peasants.
B. In the countryside, rich peasant communities - like the Patidars of Gujarat and Jats of Uttar Pradesh - were active in the movement. Being producers of commercial crops, they were very hard hit by the trade depression and falling prices.
C. The limits of Civil Disobedience Movement -  When the Civil Disobedience Movement started there was an atmosphere of suspicion and distrust between communities. 
(i) How did Gandhiji react to the Salt Law?
Ans: Gandhiji opposed the British salt tax and its monopoly over its production. He demanded the abolition of the salt tax. To protest against this unjust law, he organized the famous Dandi March, where he and his followers marched to the Arabian Sea and made their own salt by evaporating seawater.

(ii) Why did the rich peasants become supporters of the Civil Disobedience Movement?
Ans: The rich peasants became supporters of the Civil Disobedience Movement because they were severely affected by the trade depression and falling prices of commercial crops. As producers of these crops, they faced economic hardships and saw the movement as a means to fight against the exploitation and oppression they faced.

(iii) Examine the limits of the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Ans: The Civil Disobedience Movement had certain limitations, including:
(a) Lack of industrialists' participation: The industrialists did not actively participate in the movement, which affected its economic impact.
(b) Limited demands of workers: The Congress was reluctant to include the demands of workers as part of its program of struggle, which limited the scope of the movement.

Question for Previous Year Questions: Nationalism in India
Try yourself:Q12: Who among the following wrote the Vande Mataram?
View Solution

2019

Q1: Explain the implications of the 'First World War’ on the economic and political situation of India.    [2023, Al 2019]
Ans: The following were the effects of the First World War on the economic and political situation of India:

(i) More defence budget forcing countries to take war loans.
(ii) Shortages leading to prices doubling between 1913-18.
(iii) The custom duties and taxes were raised leading to a price rise.
(iv) Forced recruitment into the army led to discontent among the people.
(v) Acute shortage of food items because of crop failures.
(vi) Spread of the epidemic leading to the death of many people.

Q2: Who had organised the Dalits into the depressed classes association in 1930? Describe his achievements.    [CBSE Delhi 2019]
Ans:
It was B.R. Ambedkar who played an important role in raising the spirits of the depressed class. He belonged to the Mahar caste, one of the untouchable/Dalit castes in India. Ambedkar became a staunch anti-oppression advocate for Dalits through his politics and writing. One of his critical works is ‘The Annihilation of Caste, which was an undelivered speech he wrote in 1936. Gandhi was a caste Hindu, a Vaishya. Ambedkar was a Mahar Dalit and knew discrimination firsthand. Gandhi never repudiated the varna theory of four major groups, although he fought against the idea of a group below the varnas and he held all varnas to be equal. Ambedkar repudiated the entire caste hierarchy, dismissing what was a current effort among untouchables to “Sanskritize,” that is, adopt upper-class customs in order to raise their status. Gandhi did not believe in political battles for untouchables’ rights or approve their attempts to enter temples unless the temple authorities agreed. Ambedkar felt political power was part of the solution to untouchability. Basically, Gandhi’s faith was in change of heart; Ambedkar’s trust was in law, political power, and education. Dr BR Ambedkar after joining politics in 1930 organised an association namely the Depressed Classes Association to uplift the Dalits. The role of Ambedkar in uplifting Dalits was as follows:
(i) Dr BR Ambedkar joined active politics in 1930 and organised the Depressed Classes Association to uplift the Dalits.
(ii) He demanded separate electorates for Dalits and reservation of seats in educational institutions for them.
(iii) He signed the Poona Pact that gave reserved seats to the depressed classes in provincial and central legislative councils to ensure that the upliftment occurred at a faster rate.

Q3: "Plantation workers had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi's ideas and the notion of 'Swaraj'." Support the statement. (2019 C, Delhi 2017, Al 2016)
Ans: (i)
Plantation workers had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the notion of Swaraj. For plantation workers, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed, and it meant retaining a link with the village from which they had come.
(ii) Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission, and in fact they were rarely given such permission.
(iii) When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home.
(iv) They believed that Gandhi Raj was coming and everyone would be given land in their own villages.

Q4: Define the term 'Civil Disobedience Movement.’ Describe the participation of rich and poor peasant communities in the 'Civil Disobedience Movement.’ (Delhi 2019)
Ans: 
Civil Disobedience is the active, professed refusal of a citizen to obey certain laws, demands, orders or commands of a government. In India, it refers to the movement led by Gandhiji against the British rule.
Both the rich and the poor peasants did not participate in the Civil Disobedience movement because of varying reasons. Their reasons were as follows 

Rich Peasants: 
(i) They were hit by depressed prices of the food grains.
(ii) They were unable to pay the land revenue. Their demand for a reduction in revenue was refused.
(iii) For them fighting for Swaraj was the fight against high revenue.
(iv) They were disappointed with the calling off of the civil disobedience movement and were reluctant to join it back upon its relaunch.

Poor Peasants: 
(i) Economic depression made it very difficult for them to pay rent to the landlords
(ii) Congress did not support their no-rent campaign fearing that it would upset the rich farmers.

Q5: Explain the limitations of the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’.   (AI 2019)
Ans:
The limits of the Civil Disobedience Movement were:
(i) The Congress ignored the Dalits and the depressed classes in order to please the high-caste Hindus. Hence, the participation of the depressed classes was limited.
(ii) The Congress was associated with the Hindu-related Nationalist groups. So, the Muslim participation was less.
(iii) There was distrust between the communities alienated by the Congress. Large sections of Muslims did not respond to the civil disobedience movement.
(iv) The rich peasants were disappointed when the civil disobedience movement was called off in 1931 without the revenue rates being revised. The participation of the landless peasants was poor.
(v) The Congress was closer to and supported the business class due to which the industrial working class did not participate in the movement.

2018 - Rest of Years Questions

Q1:  Trace the reason because of which Gandhiji started Satyagraha in 1919.    [2016]
Ans:
Gandhiji started Satyagraha in 1919 to protest against the Rowlatt Act. The Rowlatt Act was a repressive law passed by the British colonial government, which allowed for the arrest and detention of individuals without trial. Gandhiji saw this act as a violation of civil liberties and launched the Satyagraha movement to peacefully resist and protest against it.
Q2: What did the British do to repress the Rowlatt Satyagrahis?   [2016]
Ans:
In order to repress the Rowlatt Satyagrahis, the British colonial government resorted to brutal measures. They arrested and detained many satyagrahis, including Mahatma Gandhi, and deployed armed forces to suppress the protests. The British authorities also resorted to violence, including firing on peaceful protesters, leading to the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in Amritsar.
Q3: Why was Congress reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority within the organisation? How did women participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.    [CBSE 2018]
Ans: (a) (i) For a long time the Congress was reluctant to allow women because Gandhiji was convinced that it was the duty of women to look after the home and hearth, be good mothers and good wives.
(ii) It was keen only on their symbolic presence.
(b) (i) During the salt march, thousands of women came out of their homes to listen to him (Gandhiji).
(ii) Women participated in protest marches, manufactured salt and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops.

Q4: What is the meaning of ‘Begar’?    [CBSE (AT) 2017]
Ans:
Labour that villager was forced to contribute without any payment.
Q5: Name the writer of the novel ‘Anandamath’    [CBSE Delhi 2017]
Ans:
Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
Q6: What is meant by Satyagraha?    [CBSE (AI) 2017]
Ans: 
The idea of Satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for the truth.
Q7: Name the famous book written by Mahatma Gandhi.    [CBSE (AI) 2017]
Ans:
'Hind Swaraj'.Class 10 History Chapter 2 Previous Year Questions - Nationalism in IndiaQ8: Under which agreement did the Indian ‘Depressed Classes’ get reserved seats in the Provincial and Central Legislative Councils in 1932?    [CBSE Delhi 2017]
Ans
: Poona pact
Q9: Who wrote the song ‘Vande Mataram?    [CBSE (F) 2017]
Ans
: Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay.
Q10: By what means does hand-spun khadi provide large-scale employment to weavers?    [CBSE Sample Question 2017]
Ans: It provides large-scale employment to weavers as it is a cottage industry, and can be set up at home.
Q11: How did the First World War create a new economic situation in India? Explain with examples.    [CBSE (F) 2017]
Ans:
First World War created a new economic situation:
(i) It led to a huge increase in defence expenditure.
(ii) Increase in taxes.
(iii) Custom duties were raised.
(iv) Introduction of income tax.
(v) Villages were called upon to supply soldiers and forced recruitment in rural area.
Q12: Why was the Non-Cooperation Movement launched by Gandhiji? Explain any three reasons.    [CBSE (Comp.) 2017]
Ans:
Reasons for the launching of the Non-Cooperation Movement:
(i) To support Khilafat agitation.
(ii) To protest against the Rowlatt Act.
(iii) To redress the wrong done in Punjab.
(iv) The dissatisfaction with the Government of India act of 1919.
(v) Demand for Swaraj
Q13: “Gandhiji’s idea of Satyagraha emphasized the Power of truth and the need to search for truth.” In light of this statement assess the contribution of Gandhiji towards Satyagraha.    [CBSE (Comp.) 2017]
Ans:
Contribution of Gandhiji towards Satyagraha:
The idea of satyagraha emphasized the power of truth and the need to search for truth. It suggested that if the cause was true if the struggle was against injustice, then the physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
Without seeking vengeance or being aggressive, a satyagrahi could win the battle through nonviolence. This could be done by appealing to the consciousness of the oppressor. People including the oppressors had to be persuaded to see the truth, instead of being forced to accept the truth through the use of violence. Through this struggle, the truth was bound to ultimately triumph. Mahatma Gandhi believed that this dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians. Based on the above principle Gandhiji started a non-cooperation movement and later civil disobedience movement.
Q14: How was the sense of collective belonging developed during the freedom movement? Explain.    [CBSE (AI) 2017]
Ans: A sense of collective belonging was developed during the freedom movement:
(i) It came partly through the experience of united struggles.
(ii) Variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured people’s imagination.
(iii) History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols all played a part in the making of nationalism.
(iv) The identity of the nation was symbolized in a figure image ‘Bharat Mata’.
(v) Vande Mataram was widely sung during the Swadesh movement in Bengal.
(vi) Icons and symbols helped in unifying people and inspiring in them a feeling of nationalism.
(vii) Ideas of nationalism also developed through a movement to revive Indian folklore.
(viii) Folk tales were sung by bards in the villages to give a true picture of traditional culture.
(ix) Reinterpretation of history created a feeling of nationalism.
(x) The nationalist histories urged the readers to take pride in India's great achievements in the past and struggle to change the miserable conditions of life under British rule.
Q15: Why did Gandhiji decide to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act 1919? Explain any three reasons.    [CBSE (Delhi) 2017, 2016]
Ans: Nationwide Satyagraha was decided to be launched against the proposed Rowlatt Act 1919 because:
(i) This act had been hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council despite the united opposition of the Indian members.
(ii) It gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities.
(iii) Allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.
Q16: How had the First World War created economic problems in India? Explain.    [CBSE (Comp.) 2017]
Ans: 
The First World War created a new political and economic situation.
(i) It led to a huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes.
(ii) Through the war years prices increased-doubling between 1913 and 1918-leading to extreme hardship for common people.
(iii) Villages were called upon to supply soldiers and the forced recruitment in rural areas caused widespread anger.
(iv) In 1918-1920 and 1920-21, crops failed in many parts of India resulting in acute shortages of food. This was accompanied by an influenza epidemic.
Q17: Why did Gandhiji relaunch the Civil Disobedience Movement after the Second Round Table Conference? Explain any three reasons.    [CBSE (F) 2017]
Ans:
Reasons for Gandhiji relaunching of Civil Disobedience Movement
(i) The negotiations with regard to India’s freedom broke down in the Second Round Table Conference held in London.
(ii) Back in India, he discovered that the government had begun a new cycle of repression.
(iii) Ghaffar Khan and Jawaharlal Nehru were put to jail.
(iv) The Congress had been declared illegal.
(v) A series of measures had been imposed to prevent meetings, demonstrations and boycotts. In such a situation he decided to relaunch the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Q18: Evaluate the ‘Satyagraha Movement’ of Gandhiji against the proposed Rowlatt Act, 1919.    [CBSE (F) 2017}
Ans: Satyagraha Movement Against The Rowlatt Act
(i) Gandhiji in 1919 decided to launch a nationwide satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act (1919).
(ii) Mahatma Gandhi wanted non-violent civil disobedience against such unjust laws, which would start with a hartal on 6 April.
(iii) Rallies were organised in various cities.
(iv) Workers went on strike in railway workshops, and shops closed down.
(v) lines of communication such as the railways and telegraph would be disrupted.
(vi) The British administration decided to clamp down on nationalists.
(vii) Local leaders were put to jail.
(viii) On 13 April the Jallianwalla Bagh incident took place.
(ix) Crowds took to the streets in many towns.
(x) The government started brutal repression.
(xi) At the Calcutta session of the Congress in September 1920, he felt the need to start a Non- non-cooperation movement in support of Khilafat as well as for Swaraj.
Q19: Evaluate the contribution of folklore, songs, popular prints etc., in shaping the nationalism during freedom struggle.    [CBSE Delhi 2017]
Ans: 
Role of folklore:
(i) History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols, all played a part in the making of Nationalism.
(ii) The identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata.
(iii) In the 187Os, Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay wrote ’ Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to the motherland.
(iv) The idea of Nationalism also developed through a movement to revive Indian folklore.
Q20: How did the salt Satyagraha become an effective tool of resistance against British colonialism in India during 1930? Explain.    [CBSE Sample Question 2017]
Ans:
(i) Salt was something consumed by the rich and poor alike, and it was one of the most essential items of food.
(ii) So Mahatma Gandhi started his farmers' Salt March accompanied by his 78 trusted volunteers.
(iii) On 6th April, he reached Dandi and ceremonially violated the law, manufacturing salt by boiling seawater.
(iv) Thousands in different parts of the country broke the salt law, manufactured salt and demonstrated in front of government salt factories.
(v) As the movement spread, foreign cloth as boycotted, and liquor shops were picketed.
(vi) Worried by developments, the colonial government began arresting the congress leaders one by one.
(vii) In May 1930, even Mahatma Gandhi was arrested.
(viii) A frightened government responded with a policy of brutal repression.
(ix) This shows the success of Salt Satyagraha as an effective tool of resistance against British Colonialism.
Q21: Evaluate the role of business classes in the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’.    [ CBSE (AI) 2017]
Ans:
Role of business classes in the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’ :
(i) The business classes reacted against colonial policies that restricted business activities.
(ii) They wanted protection against imports of foreign goods and a rupee sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports.
(iii) In order to organise business interests, they formed the Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920 and the Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) in 1927.
(iv) They gave financial assistance for the movement.
(v) They refused to buy and sell imported goods.
Q22: Who had designed the ‘Swaraj Flag’ by 1921? Explain the main features of this ‘swaraj flag’ ?    [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans: Mahatma Gandhiji designed the “Swaraj Flag” by 1921.
Features:
(i) It had tricolours-Red, Green and White
(ii) It had a spinning wheel in the centre.
(iii) It represents the Gandhian idea of self-help.
(iv) It had become a symbol of defiance.
Q23: “The Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non-Cooperation Movement.” Support the statement with examples.    [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans:
The Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non-Cooperation Movement:
Non-Cooperation Movement:
(i) The people were asked not to cooperate with the government.
(ii) Foreign goods were boycotted.
(iii) Liquor shops were picketed.
(iv) Foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires.
(v) In many places merchants and traders refused to trade on foreign goods or finance foreign traders.
(vi) Students left the government-owned schools and colleges.
(vii) Lawyers gave up legal practices.
Civil Disobedience Movement:
(i) People were asked to break colonial laws.
(ii) The countrymen broke the salt law.
(iii) Peasants refused to pay revenue and chaukidari tax.
(iv ) Village officials resigned from their jobs.
(v) Forest people violated forest rules and laws.
Q24: What type of flag was designed during the ‘Swadeshi Movement’ in Bengal? Explain its main features.    [CBSE (AI) 2016]
Ans: 
During the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal the flag designed was the Tricolour flag.
The three features of the flag were:
(i) The colour of the flag was — Red, Green and Yellow.
(ii) It represented eight provinces in British India.
(iii) It had a crescent moon representing Hindus and Muslims.
Q25: Describe the participation of the industrial working class in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Or “The Congress was reluctant to include the demands of industrial workers in its programme of struggle.” Analayse.    [CBSE 2016]
Ans
: (A) (i) They did not participate in the movement in large numbers except in the Nagpur region.
(ii) As the industrialists came closer to Congress, the workers stayed aloof.
(iii) Some workers did participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement in the following activities :
(а) Boycott of foreign goods as part of their own movements against low wages and poor working conditions.
(b) Railway strikes in 1930.
(c) Dock workers strike in 1932.
Q26: “The plantation workers in Assam had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the notion of Swaraj”. Support the statement with arguments.    [CBSE (AI) 2016]
Ans:
The plantation workers in Assam had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the notion of Swaraj.
(i) For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed.
(ii) Swaraj meant relating a link with the village from which they had come.
(iii) Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859 plantation workers were not permitted to leave the Tea Gardens without permission.
(iv) When they heard of the Non-Cooperation movement thousands of workers defined the authorities, left plantations and headed home.
(v) They believed that Gandhi Raj was coming and everyone would be given land in their own village.

Q27: How did the Non-Cooperation Movement spread to the countryside and drew into its fold the struggles of peasants and tribal communities? Elaborate.    [CBSE 2018]
Ans: (a) Peasants of Awadh:
(i) They participated under the leadership of Baba Ramchandra - a Sanyasi.
(ii) Their demands were reduction of revenue, and abolition of begar.
(iii) Activities: Nai-dhobi bandhs were organised. Oudh Kisan Sabha was formed.
(iv) Results: As the struggle became violent, the Congress was unhappy
(b) Tribals in Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh :
(i) The causes were the closure of forest areas, restrictions on livelihoods, and begar.
(ii) Activities: They attacked police stations and killed British officials. They carried guerrilla warfare.
(iii) Their leader was Alluri Sitaram Raju. He was captured and executed in 1924.
(iv) Importance: Tribal people could not achieve their objectives as their violent activities were disapproved by Congress.
Q28: How did Non-Cooperation Movement start with the participation of middle-class people in the cities? Explain its impact on the economic front.    [CBSE 2018]
Ans: (a) In the towns, the middle classes participated in the movement in the following ways :
(i) Students left the schools and colleges. Headmasters and teachers resigned. Lawyers gave up their practice.
(ii) Elections were boycotted except in Madras.
(iii) Foreign goods were boycotted.
(iv) Liquor shops were picketed.
(v) Foreign clothes were burnt in huge bonfires.
(vi) Many traders refused to import foreign cloth or trade in foreign goods.
(b) The economic effects of the Non-Cooperation Movement are given below :
(i) The import of foreign cloth decreased from Rs. 102 crore to Rs. 57 crore between 1921 and 1922.
(ii) Merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods.
(iii) People started wearing only Indian clothes. This led to increased production by the Indian textile mills and handlooms.
Q29: What action did the British government take after the famous Dandi March?
OR How did the Colonial Government repress the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’? Explain.    [CBSE (AI) 2017]
Ans: (i) Worried by the developments, the colonial government began arresting the Congress leaders one by one.
(ii) This led to violent dashes in many places.
(iii) A month later when Mahatma Gandhi himself was arrested, industrial workers in Sholapur attacked police posts, municipal buildings, law courts and railway stations—all structures that symbolised British rule.
(iv) A frightened government responded with a policy of brutal suppression.
(v) Peaceful satyagrahis were attacked, women and children were beaten, and about 1,00,000 people were arrested.
(vi) Abdul Ghaffar Khan, a devout disciple of Mahatma Gandhi was arrested (April 1930).
(vii) Angry crowds demonstrated in the streets of Peshawar facing armoured cars and police firing, many were killed.
Q30: Explain the importance of the ‘Salt March’ of Gandhiji as a symbol to unite the nation.    [CBSE (F) 2017]
Ans: Gandhiji’s salt march was undoubtedly a symbol to unite the nation because:
(i) All classes of Indian society came together as a united campaign.
(ii) Mahatma Gandhi broke the salt law with the march from Sabarmati to Dandi.
(iii) Thousands of others in different parts of the country broke the salt law, manufactured salt and demonstrated in front of government salt factories.
(iv) As the movement spread, foreign clothes were boycotted, and liquor shops were picketed.
(v) Peasants refused to pay revenue and chaukidari taxes.
(vi) Village officials resigned.
(vii) In many places, forest people violated forest laws - going into Reserved Forests to collect wood and graze cattle.
(viii) The different social groups participated.
(ix) In the countryside, rich peasants and poor peasants were active in the movement.
(x) The business class workers of Nagpur and women also joined the Movement.
Q31: Why did Gandhiji launch the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain any three reasons.    [CBSE (Comp) 2017]
Ans: Reasons for launching the Civil Disobedience Movement:
(i) Economic depression of 1930.
(ii) Arrival of Simon Commission without any Indian representative
(iii) Vague offer of Dominion status by the British, failed to satisfy Indians.
(iv) Decisions taken in the Lahore session of the Congress in 1929.
(v) Tax on salt by Britishers.
Q32: What were the effects of the Non-cooperation Movement on the economic front?    [CBSE Delhi 2017]
Ans:
(i) Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires.
(ii) The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922, its value dropping from Rs 102 crore to Rs 57 crore.
(iii) In many places, merchants and traders refused to trade.
(iv) As the boycott movement spread and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.
Q33: How did people belonging to different communities, regions or language groups develop a sense of collective belonging?    [CBSE Sample Question 2016]
Ans:
(i) This sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles and growing anger among people against the colonial government.
(ii) But there were also a variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured people’s imagination:
(a) The identity of the nation is symbolised in a figure or image of Bharat Mata created through literature, songs, paintings, etc.
(b) Movement to revive Indian folklore to enhance nationalist sentiments.
(c) Role of icons and symbols in unifying people and inspiring in them a feeling of nationalism.
(d) Creating a feeling of nationalism was through reinterpretation of history.
Q34: Why did Gandhiji decide to launch a nationwide satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act 1919? How was it organised? Explain.    [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans: 
Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act 1919:
(i) The Rowlatt Act was hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council.
(ii) Indian members unitedly opposed it.
(iii) It gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities.
(iv) It allowed the detention of political prisoners without trials for two years.
Organization of Satyagrah:
(i) Mahatma Gandhi wanted non-violent civil disobedience against such unjust laws.
(ii) It was started with a ‘Hartal’ on 6th April.
(iii) Rallies were organized in various cities.
(iv) Workers went on strike in railway workshops.
(v) Shops closed down.
Q35: Why did Mahatma Gandhi find in ’salt’ a powerful symbol that could unite the nation? Explain.    [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans:
Mahatma Gandhi found ‘salt’ a powerful symbol; Gandhiji sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands on 31st January 1930. The most stirring of all was to abolish the salt tax. Salt was one of the most essential items of food. Irwin was unwilling to negotiate. So, Gandhiji started the famous salt march. The march was over 240 miles, from Sabarmati to Dandi. Thousands came to hear Gandhiji wherever he stopped. He urged them to peacefully defy the British. On 6th April, he reached Dandi and ceremonially, violated the law, manufacturing salt by boiling sea water.
Q36:  How did a variety of cultural processes play an important role in the making of nationalism in India? Explain with examples.    [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans:
Role of cultural processes in making of nationalism in India;
(i) The sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles.
(ii) There were also a variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured people's imagination.
(iii) History, fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols played a part in the making of nationalism.
(iv) The identity of the nation is most often symbolised in a figure or an image.
(v) This helped to create an image with which people could identify the nation.
Q37: Why did Mahatma Gandhi decide to call off the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.    [CBSE (Al) 2016]
Ans:
Mahatma Gandhi decided to call off the civil Disobedience Movement because:
(i) Worried by the development of the civil Disobedience movement the colonial government began arresting the congress leaders one by one.
(ii) This led to violent clashes in many places.
(iii) When Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, a devoted disciple of Mahatma Gandhi was arrested (April 1930) angry crowds demonstrated in the street of Peshawar, facing armoured cars and police firing. Many were killed.
(iv) A month later, when Mahatma Gandhi was arrested, industrial workers in Sholapur attacked police force municipal buildings, law courts, railway stations and all other structures that symbolised British rule.
(v) A frightened government responded with the policy of brutal repression.
(vi) The peaceful satyagrahi were attacked, women and children were beaten and about 1 lakh people were arrested.
Under these circumstances, Mahatma Gandhi called off the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Q38: Why did Mahatma Gandhi relaunch the Civil Disobedience Movement with great apprehension? Explain.    [CBSE (Al) 2016]
Ans:
Mahatma Gandhi relaunched the Civil Disobedience Movement with great apprehension:
(i) In December 1931, Gandhiji went to London for the Round Table Conference, but the negotiations broke down and he returned disappointed.
(ii) In India, he discovered that the government had begun a new cycle of repression.
(iii) Abdul Ghaffar Khan and Jawahar Lai Nehru were both in jail.
(iv) The Congress had been declared illegal.
(v) A series of measures had been imposed to prevent meetings, demonstrations and boycotts.
Q39: How had the Non-cooperation Movement spread in cities? Explain.    [CBSE (F) 2016]
Ans: Non-cooperation movement in cities:
(i) The movement started with middle-class participation in the cities.
(ii) Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices.
(iii) The council elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras.
(iv) Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires. The import of foreign cloth halved.
(v) In many places, merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade.
(vi) As the boycott movement spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.
Q40: How did the ‘First World War’ create a new economic and political situations in India? Explain with examples.    [CBSE (F) 2016]
OR
How had the ‘First World War’ created economic problems in India? Explain with examples.

Ans: First World War created a new economic and political situation in India
(i) It led to huge increases in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes.
(ii) Custom duties were raised
(iii) Income tax introduced.
(iv) Through the war years prices increased-doubling between 1913 and 1918 - leading to extreme hardship for the common people.
(v) Villagers were called upon to supply soldiers.
(vi) Forced recruitment in rural areas caused widespread anger.
(vii) Crops failed in many parts of India resulting in an acute shortage of food. This was accompanied by influenced evidence.
Q41: “The plantation workers in Assam had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the nation of Swaraj.” Support the statement with arguments.    [CBSE 2016]
Or
How did the plantation workers of Assam interpret Mahatma Gandhi’s notion of Swaraj?

Or
Why did plantation workers join the Non-Cooperation Movement? What were its results?

Ans: (a) Reasons:
(i) Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers in Assam were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission. So they wanted freedom to move freely.
(ii) To retain a link with their village.
(iii) To own land in their own village.
(b) Events:
(i) During the non-cooperation movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities. They left the plantations and headed home.
(ii) They, however, never reached their destination. Stranded on the way by a railway and steamer strike, they were caught by the police and brutally beaten up.
(c) (i) The workers of Assam interpreted Swaraj in their own manner for them it was to break the ties of British bondage.
(ii) For them it also meant, freedom of movement from plantation areas of their own villages.
Q42: Simon Commission was greeted with the slogan “Go Back Simon” at arrival in India. Support this reaction of Indians with arguments.    [CBSE 2016]
Ans:
(a) In 1928, the Simon Commission under Sir John Simon was constituted by the Tory government in Britain in response to the nationalist movement.
(b) The main aim of the Commission was to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes.
(c) Arguments in favour of Indian reaction :
(i) The commission did not have a single Indian member.
(ii) All members were British.
(iii) Not to include an Indian was against the spirit of nationalists in India. Hence demonstration against the commission was justified.
Q43: Describe the various activities that took place during the first phase of the Civil Disobedience Movement. Why was it withdrawn in March 1931?     [CBSE 2016]
Ans: (a) The various activities that took place during the first phase of the movement were as mentioned below:
(i) Violation of salt laws by manufacturing salt.
(ii) Boycott of foreign cloth.
(iii) Picketing of liquor shops.
(iv) Refusal of peasants to pay revenue and chaukidari taxes.
(v) Resignation of village officials.
(vi) Violation of forest laws and going to Reserved forests to collect wood and grazing cattle.
(b) Policy of the government:
(i) The government adopted a repressive policy.
(ii) It arrested the Congress leaders.
(iii) Abdul Gaffar Khan, a devout disciple of Gandhiji, was arrested in April 1930.
(iv) In police firing many people were killed.
(v) In Sholapur, people attacked lawcourts, railway stations and the structures that symbolised British rule.
(vi) About 100,000 people were arrested.
(c) As a result of the government’s repressive policy, Gandhiji once again decided to call off the movement. Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed on 5th March 1931.
Q44: Why did the different social groups join the Civil Disobedience Movement?    [CBSE2016]
Ans: (A) Rich peasants:
(i) The rich communities like the Fatidars of Gujarat and the Jats of Uttar Pradesh were producers of commercial crops. They were very hard hit by the trade depression and falling prices.
(ii) They were not in a position to pay revenue to the government. They joined the movement in order to reduce revenue.
(B) Poor peasantry: Poor peasantry joined the movement in the hope that their unpaid rent to the landlord would be remitted because due to the Depression, they were not in a position to pay the rent.
(c) Business classes:
(i) They wanted protection against imports of foreign goods and a rupee-sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports.
(ii) They formed the Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920 and the Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) in 1927.
(iii) They refused to sell or buy imported goods.
(D) Workers:
(i) The participation by the workers in Civil Disobedience was limited. They participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement against low wages and deplorable working conditions.
(ii) There were strikes by railway workers, dock workers and mine workers in the Chota Nagpur regions.
(iii) Women: They participated in Protest Marches, manufactured salt and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops.
Q45: “Nationalism spreads when people begin to believe that they are all part of the same nation.” Support the statement.    [CBSE 2015]
Or
How did people belonging to different communities, regions or language groups in India develop a sense of collective belonging ? Elucidate.
Ans:
It is true to say that nationalism spreads when people begin to believe that they are all part of the same nation when they discover some unity that binds them together. In India sense of collective belonging came through the experience of united struggles. Cultural processes history, fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols all played a part in the making of nationalism as mentioned below:
(i) Symbol of a figure or image:
(a) The identity of India was visualised with the image of Bharat Mata.
(b) The image was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay.
(c) Abinindranath Tagore painted his famous image of Bharat Mata.
(ii) Revival of Indian folklore: In the late nineteenth century, the revival of folklore helped in the development of nationalism. Folk songs and legends gave a true picture of traditional culture. It helped in discovering national identity and restoring a sense of pride. Rabindra Nath Tagore collected ballads, nursery rhymes and Myths. Similarly, Natesa Sastri wrote folklore of Southern India.
(iii) Icons and symbols: The design of a tricolour flag during Swadeshi, swaraj flag by Gandhiji in 1921 helped in unifying people and inspire a feeling of nationalism. During demonstrations, the carrying of a Swaraj flag became a symbol of defiance.
(iv) Interpretation of history: The interpretation of history also helped in raising the sense of nationalism among the Indians. Nationalist history drew the attention of the Indians to the great achievements of the past as was done by the extremists like Lok Manya Tilak.

The document Class 10 History Chapter 2 Previous Year Questions - Nationalism in India is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
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FAQs on Class 10 History Chapter 2 Previous Year Questions - Nationalism in India

1. What were the main factors that contributed to the rise of nationalism in India during the early 20th century?
Ans. The main factors that contributed to the rise of nationalism in India during the early 20th century include British colonial rule, exploitation of Indian resources, suppression of Indian culture and traditions, and the influence of Western education and ideas.
2. How did leaders like Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru contribute to the Indian nationalist movement?
Ans. Leaders like Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru played significant roles in the Indian nationalist movement by organizing mass movements, promoting non-violent resistance, and advocating for self-rule and independence from British colonial rule.
3. What role did the Indian National Congress play in the nationalist movement in India?
Ans. The Indian National Congress was a major political party that played a crucial role in the nationalist movement in India by advocating for self-government, representing Indian interests, and mobilizing support for independence from British rule.
4. How did the partition of India in 1947 impact the nationalist movement in the country?
Ans. The partition of India in 1947 led to widespread violence, displacement of populations, and deepened communal tensions between Hindus and Muslims, which had a significant impact on the nationalist movement and the future of the country.
5. What were some key events and movements that shaped the nationalist movement in India?
Ans. Some key events and movements that shaped the nationalist movement in India include the Non-Cooperation Movement, Civil Disobedience Movement, Quit India Movement, and the Salt Satyagraha led by Mahatma Gandhi, as well as the Swadeshi Movement and the rise of revolutionary groups.
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