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Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Notes - Development

What Development Promises– Different People, Different Goals

  • Development has many aspects. People have different perspectives on development and there are ways by which we can arrive at common indicators for development.
  • Different persons have different notions of development. They seek different things. They seek things that are most important for them. 

Different People Have Different GoalsDifferent People Have Different Goals

  • What may be development for one may not be development for the other.
  • Example: Landless labourer require better wages and work, Adivasi from Narmada Valley need rehabilitation.
  • Sometimes conflicting aims are there as well.
  • For example, dams, are a reason for the displacement of some but provide electricity for the industrialists.

Income and Other Goals

  • One common thing about the developmental goals of different persons is more income or a regular and steady source of income.
  • Besides seeking more income, one or the other, people also seek equal treatment.
  • Freedom, security & respect of others.
  • They never like discrimination.
  • The developmental goals are not only about better income but also about other important things in life such as equal treatment, freedom, security and respect for others.

National Development

Different persons have different notions about national development goals such as industrial development or agricultural progress or computer literacy.


How to Compare Different Countries or States

  • Income is the most important attributes to compare different countries or states but average income or per capita income more useful than total income.
  • Average income is the total income of the country divided by its total population. It is also called per capita income.
  • Average Income = Total Income of Country / Total Population of Country

  • World Bank’s criterion — 2016: Rich countries - US $ 12236 per annum and above, low-income countries — the US $ 1005 per annum or less, India — low middle-income country — US $ 1840 per annum.
  • Countries with higher income are more developed than others with less income.
  • As different countries have different populations, comparing total income will not tell us what an average person earns. So, we compare the average income of countries.

Income and Other Criteria

When we think of a nation or a region, besides average income, public facilities and other criteria are equally significant attributes.

  • Infant Mortality Rate
  • Literacy Rate
  • Net Attendance Ratio
  • Comparison - Haryana, Kerala and Bihar
  • Haryana has the highest per capita income
  • Kerala - Literacy rate 94%, Infant Mortality Rate 12, Haryana better than Kerala.

Public Facilities

These are the services provided by the government to its citizens. Some of the important public facilities include: 


Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Notes - Development

  • Public Education
  • Hospitals
  • Public Distribution System
  • UNDP on the basis of educational level, health status and per capita income
  • Comparison with neighbouring countries - Sri Lanka much better in per capita income, life expectancy, HDI rank etc.

Sustainability of Development

Sustainable development is defined as development that meets the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations. Scientists have been warning that the present type and levels of development are not sustainable. Some of the examples are:

  • Overuse of groundwater
  • Exhaustion of natural resources
The document Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Notes - Development is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
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FAQs on Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Notes - Development

1. What are the different goals that people have for development?
Ans. Different people have different goals for development. Some common goals include increasing income and improving living standards, reducing poverty and inequality, ensuring access to education and healthcare, promoting environmental sustainability, and enhancing social and political rights.
2. How does national development differ from individual development?
Ans. National development focuses on the overall progress and welfare of a country as a whole, including economic growth, social development, and political stability. Individual development, on the other hand, pertains to the improvement and well-being of individual citizens, such as increasing their income, providing access to basic services, and ensuring personal growth and opportunities.
3. What criteria can be used to compare different countries or states in terms of development?
Ans. Different criteria can be used to compare countries or states in terms of development. Income is one commonly used criterion, which can be measured by GDP per capita or average income levels. Other criteria include education and literacy rates, healthcare indicators, poverty levels, gender equality, and environmental sustainability.
4. How does income contribute to development?
Ans. Income is an important factor in development as it provides individuals and households with the means to meet their basic needs and improve their living standards. Higher income levels enable people to access better healthcare, education, and housing, as well as invest in businesses and create job opportunities. However, income alone does not guarantee development, as it should be accompanied by equitable distribution, social inclusion, and sustainable practices.
5. What is the significance of sustainability in development?
Ans. Sustainability in development refers to the ability to meet the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It emphasizes the importance of balancing economic growth with environmental protection and social well-being. Sustainable development ensures that resources are used wisely, ecosystems are protected, and social equity is maintained, leading to long-term prosperity and well-being for all.
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