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Shankar IAS Summary: Marine Organisms- 1 | Famous Books for UPSC Exam (Summary & Tests) PDF Download

  • Includes both microscopic plants like algae (phytoplankton) and animals like crustaceans and protozoans (zooplankton) found in all aquatic ecosystems, except certain swift moving waters.
  • The major inorganic nutrients required by phytoplankton for growth and reproduction are nitrogen and phosphorus. Marine phytoplankton are not uniformly distributed throughout the oceans of the world.
  • The highest concentrations are found at high latitudes, with the exception of bliwelling areas on the continental shelves, While the tropics and subtropics. Phytoplanktons are the foundation of the aquatic food web, the primary producers
  • Phytoplankton are responsible for most of the transfer of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to the ocean. Carbon dioxide is consumed during photosynthesis, and the carbon is incorporated in the - phytoplankton, just as carbon is stored in the wood and leaves of a tree.

ZOO PLANKTON

  • Play vital role in food web of the food chain, nutrient recycling, and in transfer of organic matter from primary producers to secondary consumers like fishes

Shankar IAS Summary: Marine Organisms- 1 | Famous Books for UPSC Exam (Summary & Tests)

SEA-GRAS

  • Specialized angiosperms (marine flowering plants) that resemble grass in appearance.
  • They produce flowers; have strap-like or oval leaves and a root system.
  • They grow in shallow coastal waters with sandy or muddy bottoms & require comparatively calm areas. They are the only group of higher plants adapted to life in the salt water.
  • Major Sea grass meadows in India occur along the south east coast of Tamil Nadu and in the lagoons of a few Lakshadweep Islands.
  •  few grass beds around Andaman and Nicobar islands.

SEA WEEDS

  • Are thalloid plants) macroscopic algae, which mean they have no differentiation of true tissues such as roots, stems and leaves, have leaf-like appendages.
  • Grow in, shallow coastal waters wherever sizable substata is available.

Uses of seaweeds

  • Seaweeds are important as food for humans, feed for animals, and fertilizer for plants.
  • Seaweeds are used as a drug for goiter treatment, intestinal and stomach disorders.
  • Products like agar-agar and alginates, iodine which are of commercial value, are extracted from seaweeds.
  • By the biodegradation of seaweeds methane like, economically important’ gases can be produced in large quantities potential indicators of pollution 4n coastal ecosystem, particularly heavy metal pollution due to their ability to bind and accumulate metals strongly.
  • Rotting seaweed is a potent source of hydrogen sulphide, a highly toxic gas

Phytoplankton V/S Zooplankton
Shankar IAS Summary: Marine Organisms- 1 | Famous Books for UPSC Exam (Summary & Tests)

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FAQs on Shankar IAS Summary: Marine Organisms- 1 - Famous Books for UPSC Exam (Summary & Tests)

1. What are marine organisms?
Ans. Marine organisms are living organisms that inhabit marine environments, such as oceans and seas. They include a wide range of organisms, from microscopic bacteria and plankton to large marine mammals and fish.
2. How do marine organisms adapt to their environment?
Ans. Marine organisms have various adaptations that help them survive in their environment. Some have streamlined bodies for efficient swimming, while others have specialized respiratory systems to extract oxygen from water. Some marine organisms can also tolerate high salt concentrations, while others have developed camouflage or other defense mechanisms.
3. What role do marine organisms play in the ecosystem?
Ans. Marine organisms play crucial roles in maintaining the balance of marine ecosystems. They serve as primary producers, converting sunlight into energy through photosynthesis. They also provide food for other organisms, help recycle nutrients, and contribute to the oxygen production in the ocean.
4. What are some examples of marine organisms?
Ans. Some examples of marine organisms include phytoplankton, seaweed, coral, jellyfish, sea turtles, sharks, dolphins, and whales. These organisms represent a diverse range of species, each with its own unique adaptations and ecological significance.
5. How are marine organisms affected by human activities?
Ans. Human activities, such as pollution, overfishing, and climate change, have a significant impact on marine organisms. Pollution can contaminate their habitats and disrupt their reproductive and feeding behaviors. Overfishing can deplete populations of important species, leading to imbalances in the ecosystem. Climate change can alter ocean temperatures and acidity, affecting the survival and distribution of marine organisms.
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