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Shankar IAS Summary: Institutions And Measures- 1 | Famous Books for UPSC Exam (Summary & Tests) PDF Download


  • The first National Wildlife Action Plan (NWAP) was adopted in 1983 
  • The plan had outlined the strategies and action points for wildlife conservation 
  • The first National Wildlife Action Plan (NWAP) of 1983 has been revised and the new Wildlife Action Plan (2002-2016) has been adopted. 
  • Strengthening and Enhancing the Protected Area Network 
  • Effective Management of Protected Areas' 
  • Conservation of Wild and Endangered Species and Their Habitats Restoration of Degraded Habitats outside Protected Areas Control of Poaching, Taxidermy and llegal Trade in Wild Animal and Plant Species
  • Monitoring and Research Ensuring Peoples' Participation in Wildlife Conservation 
  • Conservation Awareness and Education X Wildlife Tourism Domestic Legislation and International Conventions
  •  Enhancing Financial Allocation for Ensuring Sustained Fund Flow to the wildlife Sector
  • Integration of National Wildlife Action Plan with Other Sectoral Programmes

The Ministry of Environment and Forests August 1992 evolved specific schemes for promoting afforestation and management strategies,
National Afforestation Programme

  • Launched in 2002, which involves plantation in degraded forests of the country NAFP is a flagship programme of National Afforestation and Eco-development Board (NAEB)
  • Provides physical and capacity building support to the Forest Development Agencies (FDAS), which are the implementing agencies


  • In April 2004, the central government, under the orders of the Supreme Court, Constituted (CAMPA) for the management of money towards compensatory afforestation, and other money recoverable, in compliance of the conditions stipulated by the central government and in accordance with the Forest (Conservation) Act
  • These remittances relate to Compensatory Afforestation (CA), Additional Compensatory Afforestation (ACA), Penal Compensatory Afforestation (PCA), Catchment Area Treatment (CAT) Plan, Protected Area Management and Net Present Value (NPV) etc.
  • The Supreme Court order, a sum of Rs.1000 crores per year, for the 5 years, shall be released to be State CAMPAs in proportion of 10% of the principal amount deposited states/Union Territories in Ad-hoc CAMPA.


  • An initiative to institutionalize participatory governance of country's forest resources by involving the local communities living close to the forest.
  • A co-management institution to develop partnerships between forest fringe communities and the Forest Department (FD) on the basis of mutual trust and jointly defined roles and responsibilities with regard to forest protection and regeneration.
  • Started in consonance with the National Forest Policy 1988 Most of the states in India have adopted JFM
  • Under JFM, both forest departments and local communities come to an agreement to form the committee to manage and protect forests by sharing the costs and benefits.
  • One of the key objectives is the rehabilitation of degraded forestlands with people's participation involving Forest Protection Committees
  • Win-win situation for both forest departments as well as the local communities in terms of greater access to minor forest produces from these regenerated forests.


  • The National Commission on Agriculture, Government of India, first used the term 'social forestry' in 1976.
  • It was then that India embarked upon a social forestry project with the aim of taking the pressure off the forests and making use of all unused and fallow land. 
  • Government forest areas that are close to human settlement and have been degraded over the years due to human activities needed to be afforested.
  • Trees were to be planted in and around agricultural fields. Plantation of trees along railway lines and roadsides, and river and canal banks were carried out. They were planted in village common land, Government wasteland and Panchayat land.
  • Aims at raising plantations by the common man so as to meet the growing demand for food, fuel wood, fodder, fiber and fertilizer ( 5Ps) etc,
  • There by reducing the pressure on the traditional forest area, the government formally recognised the local communities' rights to forest resources, and encouraged rural participation in the management of natural resources. 
  • Farm forestry, Community forestry, Extension forestry ( Planting of trees on the sides of roads, canals and railways, along with planting on wastelands), Recreational forestry


  • A Centrally Sponsored Scheme with 100% contribution from Central Government. 
  • It is being implemented by the Horticulture Division under Department of Agriculture and Cooperation in the Ministry of Agriculture, New Delhi Bamboo Mission envisages integration of different Ministries/Departments and involvement of local people/initiatives for the holistic development of bamboo sector in terms of growth of bamboo through increase in -area coverage, 
  • Enhanced yields and scientific management, marketing of bamboo and bamboo based handicrafts, generation of employment opportunities etc.
  • Set up National, State and sub-State level structures, to ensure adequate returns for the produce of the farmers and eliminate middlemen, to the extent possible


  • Is a rational number to characterize the environmental quality at a given location following the algorithm of source, pathway, receptor and various parameters like pollutant concentration, impact on human health and level of exposure have been taken into consideration for the calculation of pollution indices for air, water and land
  • The present. CEPI is intended to act as an early warning tool.
  • It can-help in categorizing the industrial clusters in terms of priority of planning needs For interventions
  • The Central and state Pollution Control Board, in collaboration with IIT, Delhi has applied the CEPI
  • 43 such industrial clusters having CEPI greater than 70, on a scale of 0 to 100, have been identified as critically polluted


  • A campaign by TERI that promotes use of use of solar lanterns specially designed and
  • The manufactured on a decentralized basis has been able to engage with government interventions under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, Madhya Pradesh Rural Livelihood Project, Rasthriya Gramin Vikas Nidhi, and has facilitated the spread of mobile telephony with support from Department of Telecommunications, Government of India.
  • Successfully engaged the private sector and leveraged Corporate Social Responsibility initiative has the potential to contribute towards the realization of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by improving energy access for the rural poor.
  • Formation of more than 100 women-led Self Help Groups (SHGs), and strengthening of around 150 SHGs are among the impacts of this initiative
  • The campaign has demonstrated how Public- Private-People partnerships can support rural development schemes, particularly in the areas of health, education, environment and women’s empowerment


  • Labelling of environment friendly products to provide accreditation and labelling’ for household and other consumer products which meet certain environmental criteria along with quality requirements of the Bureau of Indian Standards for that product.
  • Objective- to recognize good environ mental performance as well as improvements in performance of the unit.
  • Any product, which is made, used or disposed of in a way that significantly reduces the harm to environment, could be considered as 'Environment Friendly Product


  • Project funded by UNDP executed by Ministry of Environment and Forests and implemented by TEM.
  • Aim-to develop an analytical tool to measure the performance, with respect to delivery of basic services in local bodies of Delhi and Kanpur. (Identified as pilot cities).
  • Performance measurement (PM) tool was developed through a set of performance measurement indicators that are benchmarked against set targets using the inputs-outputs efficiency outcomes framework.


  • Aim- conserving Biodiversity in selected landscapes, including wildlife protected areas/ critical conservation areas while improving rural livelihoods through participatory approaches.
  • Development of Joint Forest Management (JFM) and eco-development The Project would be implemented as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme with five financiers (IDA loan, GEF grant, contributions from Government of India, State Governments and beneficiaries), amounting to around Rs. 137.35 crores, and spread Over six years.


  • "National Clean Energy Fund’ (NCEF) was constituted in the public account of India in the Finance Bill 2010-11.
  • Objective - to invest in entrepreneurial ventures And research & innovative projects in the field of clean energy technology.
  • The Central Board of Excise and Customs consequently notified the Clean Energy Cess Rules 2010 under which producers of specified goods namely raw coal, raw lignite and raw peat were made liable to pay Clean Energy Cess.
  • Any project with innovative methods to adopt to clean energy technology and research & development shall be eligible for funding under the NCEF. Government assistance under the NCEF shall in no case exceed 40% of the total project Cost.
  • The Indo-French Centre for the Promotion of Advanced Research (CEFIPRA) launched a multidisciplinary Indo-French research project titled "Adaptation of Irrigated Agriculture to Climate Change (AICHA).’
  • The study aims at developing an integrated model for analysing the impact of climate change on ground water-irrigated agriculture in south India.
  • Berambadi village and surrounding areas in Hangla hobli of Gundlupet taluk in Chamaraja nagar district have been selected for a field study under the project.
  • The project would explore adaptation strategies based on innovative cropping systems and water resource management policies,
  • The methodology will combine remote sensing, field surveys and advanced numerical analysis with hydrological, agronomical and economic modeling, and will pay particular attention to sustainability and acceptability issues.


  • To promote electric mobility and manufacturing of electric vehicles in India,
  • The setting up of NCEM has been influenced by the following three factors:
    (i) Fast dwindling petroleum resources
    (ii) Impact of vehicles on the environment and climate change
    (iii) Worldwide shift of the automobile industry towards more efficient drive Technologies and alternative fuels including electric vehicles
  • The NCEM will be the apex body in the Government of India for making Recommendations in these matters


  • An innovative mobile exhibition mounted on a specially designed 16 coach AC train, traveling across India from 5 June to 22 December 2012 (180 days) to create widespread awareness on the unique biodiversity of the country.
  • SEBS is the fifth phase of the iconic and path-breaking Science Express. The SEBS is a unique collaborative initiative of Department of Science & Technology (DST) and Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF), Government of India.


A Central Scheme launched during the 6th Five Year Plan in 1983-84


  • To promote environmental awareness among all sections of the society 
  • To spread environment education, especially in the non-formal system. 
  • To facilitate development of education/training materials and aids in the formal education Sector.
  • To promote environment education through existing educational/scientific institutions.
  • To ensure training and manpower development for EEAT. 
  • To encourage NGOs, mass media and other concerned organizations for promoting awareness about environmental issues.
  • To use different media (audio & visual) for spreading messages concerning environment and awareness and
  • To mobilize people’s participation for preservation and conservation of environment.


  • Launched in 1986 with the objective of creating environmental awareness at the national level.
  • “It is a multi-media campaign which utilises conventional and non- Conventional methods of communication for disseminating environmental messages.
  • Under this campaign, nominal financial assistance is provided to register NGOs, schools, colleges, universities, research institutions, women and youth organisations, army units, State Government Departments etc. From all over the country for organising/ conducting awareness raising activities.


  • The main objectives of this programme are to educate children about their immediate environment and impart knowledge about the eco-systems, to mobilise youngsters by instilling in them the spirit of scientific inquiry into environmental problems and involving them in the efforts of environmental preservation.
  • Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE)
  • The GLOBE is an International Science, and Education Programme, which stress on hands on participatory approach.
  • India joined this programme during the August, 2000. Aimed at school children


  • A partnership-based initiative promoting investment in coastal ecosystems for sustainable development.
  • To promote healthy coastal ecosystems through a partnership-based, people-focused, policy-relevant and investment-orientated approach, which builds and applies knowledge, empowers communities and other stakeholders, enhances ‘governance, secures livelihoods, and increases resilience to natural hazards and climate change.
  • Member countries: India, Indonesia, Maldives, Pakistan, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, Thailand, VietNam. Outreach countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, Myanmar, Timor-Leste.
  • Dialogue countries: Kenya, Malaysia, Tanzania.
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FAQs on Shankar IAS Summary: Institutions And Measures- 1 - Famous Books for UPSC Exam (Summary & Tests)

1. What is the National Wildlife Action Plan?
Ans. The National Wildlife Action Plan is a government initiative aimed at conserving and protecting India's wildlife and their habitats. It outlines strategies and measures to address various issues such as habitat loss, poaching, and human-wildlife conflict.
2. What is the objective of Joint Forest Management (UFM)?
Ans. The objective of Joint Forest Management (UFM) is to involve local communities in the management and conservation of forests. It encourages collaboration between forest departments and local communities to ensure sustainable forest management and livelihood opportunities for local people.
3. What is the National Bamboo Mission?
Ans. The National Bamboo Mission is a government scheme focused on the promotion of bamboo cultivation, utilization, and marketing. It aims to harness the potential of bamboo as a renewable resource for livelihood generation, environmental conservation, and economic growth.
4. What is the National Clean Energy Fund?
Ans. The National Clean Energy Fund is a fund created by the government of India to support and finance clean energy projects. It is aimed at promoting the development and deployment of renewable energy sources and technologies.
5. What is the purpose of the Eco Clubs (National Green Corps)?
Ans. The purpose of the Eco Clubs, also known as National Green Corps, is to create environmental awareness among students and promote sustainable practices. These clubs engage students in various activities such as tree plantation, waste management, and biodiversity conservation to instill a sense of environmental responsibility from a young age.
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