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Act And Policies - 4 | Environment for UPSC CSE PDF Download

Time frame for implementation

  • Million plus cities (based on 2011 census of India), shall commission the processing and disposal facility within one-and-a-half years from date of final notification of these rules
  • 0.5 to 1 million cities, shall commission the processing and disposal facility within two years from date of final notification of these rules
  • for other cities (< 0.5 million populations), shall commission the processing and disposal facility within three years from date of final notification of these rules
    Local Authority shall be responsible for proper management of construction and demolition waste within its jurisdiction including placing appropriate containers for collection of waste, removal at regular intervals, transportation to appropriate sites for processing and disposal. Procurement of materials made from construction and demolition waste shall be made mandatory to a certain percentage (say 10-20%) in municipal and Government contracts subject to strict quality control.

Do you know?
The decline in vulture population has had other indirect costs, too. Anecdotal evidence shows that the population of secondary scavengers such as dogs, jackals and rodents has been increasing. This might be leading to increased expenditure on diseases such as rabies, leptospirosis in humans and canine distemper in tigers. Besides, the increase in feral dogs’ population and the change in their feeding habits might also have an impact on the prey base for large wild cats like the tiger in future.

Bio-Medical Waste Management Rules, 2016
Biomedical waste comprises human & animal anatomical waste, treatment apparatus like needles, syringes and other materials used in health care facilities in the process of treatment and research. This waste is generated during diagnosis, treatment or immunisation in hospitals, nursing homes, pathological laboratories, blood bank, etc. Total bio-medical waste generation in the country is 484 TPD from 1,68,869 healthcare facilities (HCF), out of which 447 TPD is treated.
The hospitals servicing 1000 patients or more per month are required to obtain authorisation and segregate biomedical waste in to 10 categories, pack five colour backs for disposal.
The quantum of waste generated in India is estimated to be 1-2 kg per bed per day in a hospital and 600 gm per day per bed in a clinic. 85% of the hospital waste is non-hazardous, 15% is infectious/hazardous. Mixing of hazardous results in to contamination and makes the entire waste hazardous. Hence there is necessity to segregate and treat. Improper disposal increases risk of infection; encourages recycling of prohibited disposables and disposed drugs; and develops resistant microorganisms Scientific disposal of Biomedical Waste through segregation, collection and treatment in an environmentally sound manner minimises the adverse impact on health workers and on the environment.

The salient features
(a) The ambit of the rules has been expanded to include vaccination camps, blood donation camps, surgical camps or any other healthcare activity
(b) Phase-out the use of chlorinated plastic bags, gloves and blood bags within two years
(c) Pre-treatment of the laboratory waste, microbiological waste, blood samples and blood bags through disinfection orsterilisation on-site in the manner as prescribed by WHO or NACO
(d) Provide training to all its health care workers and immunise all health workers regularly
(e) Establish a Bar-Code System for bags or containers containing bio-medical waste for disposal
(f) Report major accidents
(g) Existing incinerators to achieve the standards for retention time in secondary chamber and Dioxin and Furans within two years
(h) Bio-medical waste has been classified in to 4 categories instead 10 to improve the segregation of waste at source
(i) Procedure to get authorisation simplified. Automatic authorisation for bedded hospitals. The validity of authorization synchronised with validity of consent orders for Bedded HCFs. One time Authorisation for Non-bedded HCFs
(j) The new rules prescribe more stringent standards for incinerator to reduce the emission of pollutants in environment
(k) Inclusion of emissions limits for Dioxin and furans
(l) State Government to provide land for setting up common bio-medical waste treatment and disposal facility
(m) No occupier shall establish on-site treatment and disposal facility, if a service of `common bio-medical waste treatment facility is available at a distance of seventy-five kilometer.
(n) Operator of a common bio-medical waste treatment and disposal facility to ensure the timely collection of bio-medical waste from the HCFs and assist the HCFs in conduct of training

Amendment Rules, 2018

  • Phase out chlorinated plastic bags (excluding blood bags) and gloves by March 27, 2019.
  • All healthcare facilities shall make available the annual report on its website within a period of two years (from 2018).
  • Operators of common bio-medical waste treatment and disposal facilities shall establish barcoding and global positioning system for handling of bio-medical waste in accordance with guidelines issued by the CPCB.
  • Every person having administrative control over the institution generating biomedical waste shall pre-treat it through sterilization on-site in the manner as prescribed by WHO and then sent to the Common biomedical waste treatment facility for final disposal.

E-Waste Management Rules, 2016
17 lakh tonnes of E-waste is generated every year, with an annual increase of 5 per cent of generation of E-waste.
For the first time, the Rules will bring the producers under Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR), along with targets. The producers have been made responsible for collection of E-waste and for its exchange

Salient features
1. Manufacturer, dealer, refurbisher and Producer Responsibility Organization (PRO) have been introduced as additional stake holders in the rules.
2. The applicability of the rules has been extended to components, consumables, spares and parts of EEE in addition to equipment as listed in Schedule I.
3. Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) and other mercury containing lamp brought under the purview of rules.
4. Collection mechanism based approach has been adopted to include collection centre, collection point, take back system etc for collection of e-waste by Producers under Extended Producer Responsibility(EPR).
5. Option has been given for setting up of PRO, e-waste exchange, e- retailer, Deposit Refund Scheme as additional channel for implementation of EPR by Producers to ensure efficient channelization of e-waste.
6. Provision for Pan India EPR Authroization by CPCB has been introduced replacing the state wise EPR authorization.
7. Collection and channelisation of e-waste in Extended Producer Responsibility - Authorisation shall be in line with the targets prescribed in Schedule III of the Rules. The phase wise Collection Target for e-waste, which can be either in number or Weight shall be 30% of the quantity of waste generation as indicated in EPR Plan during first two year of implementation of rules followed by 40%during third and fourth years, 50% during fifth and sixth years and 70% during seventh year onwards.
8. Deposit Refund Scheme has been introduced as an additional economic instrument wherein the producer charges an additional amount as a deposit at the time of sale of the electrical and electronic equipment and
returns it to the consumer along with interest when the end-of life electrical and electronic equipment is returned.
9. The e-waste exchange as an option has been provided in the rules as an independent market instrument offering assistance or independent electronic systems offering services for sale and purchase of e-waste generated from end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment between agencies or organizations authorised under these rules.
10. The manufacturer is also now responsible to collect e-waste generated during the manufacture of any electrical and electronic equipment and channelise it for recycling or disposal and seek authorization from SPCB.
11. The dealer, if has been given the responsibility of collection on behalf of the producer, need to collect the e-waste by providing the consumer a box and channelize it to Producer.
12. Dealer or retailer or e-retailer shall refund the amount as per take back system or Deposit Refund Scheme of the producer to the depositor of e-waste.
13. Refurbisher need collect e-waste generated during the process of refurbishing and channelise the waste to authorised dismantler or recycler through its collection centre and seek one time authorization from SPCB.
14. The roles of the State Government has been also introduced in the Rules in order to ensure safety, health and skill development of the workers involved in the dismantling and recycling operations.
15. The transportation of e-waste shall be carried out as per the manifest system whereby the transporter shall be required to carry a document (three copies) prepared by the sender, giving the details.
16. Liability for damages caused to the environment or third party due to improper management of e-waste including provision for levying financial penalty for violation of provisions of the Rules has also been introduced. 17. Urban Local Bodies (Municipal Commit tee/Council/ Corporation) has been assign the duty to collect and channelized the orphan products to authorized dismantler or recycler.

Amendment Rules, 2018

  • The e-waste collection targets under extended producer responsibility (EPR) have been revised. The phase-wise collection targets for e-waste in weight shall be 10% of the quantity of waste generation as indicated in the EPR Plan during 2017-18, with a 10% increase every year until 2023. From 2023 onwards, the target has been made 70% of the quantity of waste generation as indicated in the EPR Plan.
  • Separate e-waste collection targets have been draf ted for new producers
  • Under the Reduction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) provisions, cost for sampling and testing shall be borne by the government for conducting the RoHS test. If the product does not comply with RoHS provisions, then the cost of the test will be borne by the Producers.

Plastic Waste Management Rules, 2016
15, 000 tonnes of plastic waste is generated every day, out of which 9, 000 tonnes is collected and processed, but 6, 000 tonnes of plastic waste is not being collected. An eco-friendly product, which is a complete substitute of the plastic in all uses, has not been found till date. In the absence of a suitable alternative, it is impractical and undesirable to impose a blanket ban on the use of plastic all over the country. The real challenge is to improve plastic waste management systems.

Salient features
1. Increase minimum thickness of plastic carry bags from 40 to 50 microns and stipulate minimum thickness of 50 micron for plastic sheets also to facilitate collection and recycle of plastic waste.
2. To promote use of plastic waste for road construction as per Indian Road Congress guidelines or energy recovery, or waste to oil etc. for gainful utilization of waste
3. Rural areas have been brought in ambit of these Rules since plastic has reached torural areas also. Responsibility for implementation of the rules is given to Gram Panchayat.
4. First time, responsibility of waste generators is being introduced. Individual and bulk generators like offices, commercial establishments, industries are to segregate the plastic waste at source, handover segregated waste, pay user fee as per bye-laws of the local bodies.
5. Plastic products are left littered after the public events (marriage functions, religious gatherings, public meetings etc) held in open spaces. First time, persons organizing such events have been made responsible for management of waste generated from these events.
6. Use of plastic sheet for packaging, w rapping t he commodity except those plastic sheet’s thickness, which will impair the functionality of the product are brought under the ambit of these rules. A large number of commodities are being packed/wrapped into plastic sheets and thereafter such sheets are left for littered. Provisions have been introduced to ensure their collection and channelization to authorised recycling facilities.
7. Extended Producer Responsibility: Earlier, EPR was left to the discretion of the local bodies. First time, the producers and brand owners have been made responsible for collecting waste generated from their products. They have to approach local bodies for formulation of plan/system for the plastic waste management within the prescribed time frame.
8. SPCBs will not grant/renew registration of plastic bags, or multi-layered packaging unless the producer proposes the action plan endorsed by the concerned State Development Department.
9. Producers to keep a record of their vendors to whom they have supplied raw materials for manufacturing carry bags, plastic sheets, and multi-layered packaging. This is to curb manufacturing of these products in unorganised sector.
10. The entry points of plastic bags/plastic sheets/multilayered packaging in to commodity supply chain are primarily the retailers and street vendors. They have been assigned the responsibility of not to provide the commodities in plastic bags/plastic sheets/multi-layered packaging which do not conform to these rules. Otherwise, they will have to pay the fine.
11. Plastic carry bag will be available only with shopkeepers/street vendors pre-registered with local bodies on payment of certain registration fee. The amount collected as registration fee by local bodies is to be used for waste management.
12. CPCB has been mandated to formulate the guidelines for thermoset plastic (plastic difficult to recycle). In the earlier Rules, there was no specific provision for such type of plastic.
13. Manufacturing and use of non-recyclable multi-layered plastic to be phased in two years.

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