The latitude and departure of the line AB of length l and reduced bearing θ are given by
L = +lcosθ
D = lsinθ
Latitude: Projection of a line on NS direction is called latitude.
Departure: Projection of a line on EW direction is called departure.
Independent Coordinate
Closing Error
If sum of latitude, ∑L ≠ 0
and sum of departure ∑D ≠ 0
then there is a closing error
Closing error,
the direction of closing error (δ)
Adjustment of Closing Error
Balancing the Traverse
Definition: The horizontal control in Geodetic survey is established either by triangulation or by precise traverse. In triangulation, the system consists of a number of interconnected triangles in which the length of only one line is called the base line and the angles of the triangle are measured very precisely.
Signals and Towers
Routine of Triangulation Survey
The routine of triangulation survey generally consists of the following operations:
Let, h_{1} = height of station a above datum
h_{2 }= height of station B above datum
h = height of line of sight at the obstruction C
2s = distance between the two stations A and B
(s + x) = distance of obstruction C from A
(s – X) = distance of obstruction C from B
ζ = zenith distance from A to B
The height h of the line of sight at the obstruction is given by
If X, s and R are substituted in miles, and h_{1}, h_{2} and h are in feet.
and 1  2m/2R = 0.06728
If X, s and R are in km and h_{1}, h_{2} and h are in meters.
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1. What is traverse surveying? 
2. How is a theodolite used in traverse surveying? 
3. What is the role of a compass in traverse surveying? 
4. What are the advantages of traverse surveying? 
5. What are the limitations of traverse surveying? 

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