Assumptions of Euler's theory:
Euler's theory is based on the following assumptions:
(i) Axis of the column is perfectly straight when unloaded.
(ii) The line of thrust coincides exactly with the unstrained axis of the column.
(iii) Flexural rigidity El is uniform.
(iv) Material is isotropic and homogeneous.
Limitation of Euler’s Formula
The maximum load at which the column tends to have lateral displacement or tends to buckle is known as buckling or crippling load. Load columns can be analysed with the Euler’s column formulas can be given as
where, E = Modulus of elasticity, L_{e }= Effective Length of column, and I = Moment of inertia of column section.
(i) For both end hinged
in case of Column hinged at both end L_{e} = L
(ii) For one end fixed and other freein case of column one end fixed and other free: Le = 2L
(iii) For both end fixedin case of Column with both end Fixed L_{e} = L / 2
in case of Column with one end fixed and other hinged L_{e} = L / √2
(v) Effective Length for different End conditionsThe slenderness ratio of a compression member is defined as the ratio of its effective length to least radius of gyration.
slenderness (s) = L_{e }/ k = Effective length of member / Least radius of gyration
Modes of failure of ColumnsRankine’s FormulaRankine proposed an empirical formula for columns which coven all Lasts ranging from very short to very long struts. He proposed the relation
1 / P_{R }= 1 / P_{C} + 1 / P_{E}
P_{c} = σ_{C}. A = ultimate load for a strut
Eulerian crippling load for the standard case
Where a = Rankine's constant =
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1. What is Euler's Theory of Columns in mechanical engineering? 
2. What are the assumptions made in Euler's Theory of Columns? 
3. How is the critical buckling load determined in Euler's Theory of Columns? 
4. What is the significance of Euler's Theory of Columns in mechanical engineering? 
5. Can Euler's Theory of Columns be applied to all types of columns? 

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