UPSC Optional Subject Syllabus: Civil Engineering

## Paper - I

### Engineering Mechanics, Strength of Materials and Structural Analysis.

Engineering Mechanics

• Units and Dimensions, SI Units, Vectors, Concept of Force, Concept of particle and rigid body. Concurrent, Non- Concurrent and parallel forces in a plane, moment of force free body diagram, conditions of equilibrium, Principle of virtual work, equivalent force system. First and Second Moment of area, Mass moment of Inertia.
• Static Friction. Kinematics and Kinetics: Kinematics in cartesian Co-ordinates, motion under uniform and non-uniform acceleration, motion under gravity. Kinetics of particle: Momentum and Energy principles, collision of elastic bodies, rotation of rigid bodies.

Strength of Materials:

• Simple Stress and Strain, Elastic constants, axially loaded compression members, Shear force and bending moment, theory of simple bending, Shear Stress distribution across cross sections, Beams of uniform strength.
• Deflection of beams: Mecaulay’s method, Mohr’s Moment area method, Conjugate beam method, unit load method. Torsion of Shafts, Elastic stability of columns, Euler’s, Rankine’s and Secant formulae.

Structural Analysis

• Castiglianio’s theorems I and II, unit load method, of consistent deformation applied to beams and pin jointed trusses. Slope-deflection, moment distribution. Rolling loads and Influences lines : Influences lines for Shear Force and Bending moment at a section of a beam. Criteria for maximum shear force and bending Moment in beams traversed by a system of moving loads. Influences lines for simply supported plane pin jointed trusses.
• Arches: Three hinged, two hinged and fixed arches, rib shortening and temperature effects.
• Matrix mehods of analysis: Force method and displacement method of analysis of indeterminate beams and rigid frames.
• Plastic Analysis of beams and frames: Theory of plastic bending, plastic analysis, statical method, Mechanism method.
• Unsymmetrical bending: Moment of inertia, product of inertia, position of Neutral Axis and Principal axes, calculation of bending stresses.

### Design of Structures: Steel, Concrete and Masonry Structures.

Structural Steel Design

• Structural steel: Factors of safety and load factors. Riveted, bolted and welded joints and connections. Design of tension and compression members, beams of built up section, riveted and welded plate girders, gantry girders, stancheons with battens and lacings.

Design of concrete and masonry structures

• Concept of mix design. Reinforced Concrete: Working Stress and Limit State method of design— Recommendations of I. S. codes. Design of one way and two way slabs, stair-case slabs, simple and continuous beams of rectangular, T and L sections. Compression members under direct load with or without eccentricity. Cantilever and Counter fort type retaining walls.
• Water tanks: Design requirements for Rectangular and circular tanks resting on ground. Prestressed Concrete : Methods and systems of prestressing, anchorages, Analysis and design of sections for flexure based on working stress, loss of prestress. Design of brick masonry as per I. S. Codes

### Fluid Mechanics, Open Channel Flow and Hydraulic Machines

Fluid Mechanics

• Fluid properties and their role in fluid motion, fluid statics including forces acting on plane and curve surfaces.
• Kinematics and Dynamics of Fluid flow: Velocity and accelerations, stream lines, equation of continuity, irrotational and rotational flow, velocity potential and stream functions.
• Continuity, momentum, energy equation, Navier Stokes equation, Euler’s equation of motion, application to fluid flow problems, pipe flow, sluice gates, weirs.

Dimensional Analysis and Similitude:

• Buckingham’s Pi-theorem, dimensionless parameters.

Laminar Flow

• Laminar flow between parallel, stationary and moving plates, flow through tube.

Boundary layer

• Laminar and turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate, laminar sub-layer, smooth and rough boundaries, drag and lift. Turbulent flow through pipes : Characteristics of turbulent flow, velocity distribution and variation of pipe friction factor, hydraulic grade line and total energy line.

Open Channel Flow

• Uniform and non-uniform flows, momentum and energy correction factors, specific energy and specific force, critical depth, rapidly varied flow, hydraulic jump, gradually varied flow, classification of surface profiles, control section, step method of integration of varied flow equation.

Hydraulic Machines and Hydropower

• Hydraulic turbines, types classification, Choice of turbines performance parameters, controls, characteristics, specific speed. Principles of hydropower development.

### Geotechnical Engineering

• Soil Type and Structure—gradation and particle size distribution—consistency limits. Water in soil—capillary and structural—effective stress and pore water pressure—permeability concept—filed and laboratory determination of permeability—Seepage pressure—quick sand conditions—Shear strength determination—Mohr Coulomb concept. Compaction of soil—Laboratory and filed test.
• Compressibility and consolidation concept— consolidation theory—consolidation settlement analysis. Earth pressure theory and analysis for retaining walls, Application for sheet piles and Braced excavation.
• Bearing capacity of soil—approaches for analysis- Filed tests—settlement analysis—stability of slope of earth walk. Subsuface exploration of soils—methods Foundation—Type and selection criteria for foundation of structures—Design criteria for foundation—Analysis of distribution of stress for footings and pile—pile group action—pile load test. Ground improvement techniques.

## Paper - II

### Construction Technology, Equipment, Planning and Management

Construction Technology

• Engineering Materials: Physical properties of construction materials with respect to their use in construction—Stones, Bricks and Tiles; Lime, Cement, different types of Mortars and Concrete. Specific use of ferro cement, fibre reinforced C. C., High stength concrete. Timber; Properties defects—common preservation treatments.
• Use and selection of materials for specific use like Low Cost Housing, Mass Housing, High Rise Buildings.

### Construction

• Masonry principles using Brick, stone, Blocks—construction detailing and strength characteristics. Types of plastering, pointing, flooring, roofing and construction features. Common repairs in buildings.
• Principle of functional planning of building for residents and specific use—Building code provisions. Basic principles of detailed and approximate estimating—specification writing and rate analysis-principles of valuation of real property.
• Machinery for earthwork, concreting and their specific uses—Factors affecting selection of equipments—operating cost of equipments.

### Construction Planning and Management

• Construction activity—schedules—organization for construction industry—Quality assurance principles.
• Use Basic principle of network—analysis in form of CPM and PERT—their use in construction monitoring, Cost optimization and resource allocation. Basic principles of Economic analysis and methods.
• Project profitability—Basic principles of Boot approach to financial planning-simple toll fixation criterions.

### Surveying and Transportation Engineering

• Surveying: Common methods and instruments for distance and angle measurement for CE work—their use in plane table, traverse survey, levelling work, triangulation, contouring and topographical map. Basic principles of photogrammetry and remote sensing.
• Railways Engineering: Permanent way—components, types and their function-Functions and Design constituents of turn and crossing— Necessity of geometric design of track—Design of station and yards.
• Highway Engineering: Principles of Highway alignments—classification and geometrical design elements and standards for Roads. Pavement structure for flexible and rigid pavements—Design principles and methodology of pavements.
• Typical construction methods and standards of materials for stabilized soil, WBM, Bituminous works and CC roads. Surface and sub-surface drainge arrangements for roads—culvert structures. Pavement distresses and strengthening by overlays. Traffic surveys and their application in traffic planning—Typical design features for channelized, intersection rotary etc.—signal designs—standard Traffic signs and markings.

### Hydrology, Water Resources and Engineering

• Hydrology: Hydrological cycle, precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, infiltration, overland flow, hydrograph, flood frequency analyses, flood routing through a reservoir, channel flow routing—Muskingam method.
• Ground Water flow: Specific yield, storage coefficient, coefficient of permeability, confined and unconfined aquifers, aquifers, aquitards, radial flow into a well under confined and unconfined conditions.
• Water Resources Engineering: Ground and surface water resources, single and multipurpose projects, storage capacity of reservoirs, reservoir losses, reservoir sedimentation.

Irrigation Engineering

• Water requirements of crops : consumptive use, duty and delta, irrigation methods and their efficiencies.
• Canals : Distribution systems for cannal irrigation, canal capacity, canal losses, alignment of main and distributory canals, most efficient section, lined canals, their design, regime theory, critical shear stress, bed load.
• Water logging : causes and control, salinity.
• Canal structures : Design of head regulators, canal falls, aqueducts, metering flumes and canal outlets.
• Diversion head work : Principles and design of weirs on permeable and impermeable foundation, Khosla’s theory, energy dissipation.
• Storage works : Types of dams, design, principles of rigid gravity stability analysis.
• Spillways : Spillway types, energy dissipation.
• River training : Objectives of river training, methods of river training.

### Environmental Engineering

• Water Supply: Predicting demand for water, impurities of water and their significance, physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis, waterborne diseases, standards for potable water.
• Intake of Water: Water treatment: principles of coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation; slow-, rapid-, pressure-, filters; chlorination, softening, removal of taste, odour and salinity.
• Sewerage Systems: Domestic and industrial wastes, store sewage—separate and combined systems, flow through sewers, design of sewers.
• Sewage Characterisation : BOD, COD, solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen and TOC. Standards of disposal in normal water course and on land.
• Sewage Treatment: Working principles, units, chambers, sedimentation tank, trickling filters, oxidation ponds, activated sludge process, septic tank, disposal of sludge, recycling of waste water.
• Solid waste: Collection and disposal in rural and urban contexts, management of long-term ill-effects.
• Environmental pollution: Sustainable development. Radioactive wastes and disposal. Environmental impact assessment for thermal power plants, mines, river valley projects. Air pollution. Pollution control acts.
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## FAQs on UPSC Optional Subject Syllabus: Civil Engineering

 1. What is the syllabus for the Civil Engineering optional subject in the UPSC exam?
Ans. The syllabus for the Civil Engineering optional subject in the UPSC exam includes topics such as Building Materials, Structural Analysis, Design of Steel Structures, Design of Concrete and Masonry Structures, Construction Practice, Planning and Management, Fluid Mechanics, Open Channel Flow, Hydrology, Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Geotechnical Engineering, Foundation Engineering, Transportation Engineering, and more.
 2. How many papers are there for the Civil Engineering optional subject in the UPSC exam?
Ans. There are two papers for the Civil Engineering optional subject in the UPSC exam. Paper-I covers topics related to Building Materials, Solid Mechanics, Structural Analysis, Design of Steel Structures, Design of Concrete and Masonry Structures, Construction Practice, Planning and Management. Paper-II covers topics related to Fluid Mechanics, Open Channel Flow, Hydrology, Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Geotechnical Engineering, Foundation Engineering, Transportation Engineering, and more.
 3. What is the level of complexity of the questions in the Civil Engineering optional subject in the UPSC exam?
Ans. The level of complexity of the questions in the Civil Engineering optional subject in the UPSC exam is generally high. The questions are designed to test the candidate's in-depth understanding of various civil engineering concepts and their application in practical scenarios. It requires a thorough knowledge of the subject and the ability to solve complex problems related to civil engineering.
 4. What are some frequently asked questions in the Civil Engineering optional subject in the UPSC exam?
Ans. Some frequently asked questions in the Civil Engineering optional subject in the UPSC exam include topics such as the design of structures, construction management, fluid mechanics, transportation engineering, and environmental engineering. These questions may test the candidate's knowledge of formulas, concepts, and their ability to analyze and solve engineering problems.
 5. How can I prepare for the Civil Engineering optional subject in the UPSC exam?
Ans. To prepare for the Civil Engineering optional subject in the UPSC exam, it is important to have a strong foundation in the core concepts of civil engineering. Candidates should thoroughly study the recommended textbooks, solve previous years' question papers, and practice solving numerical problems. It is also beneficial to join coaching classes or online courses specifically designed for UPSC civil engineering optional subject preparation. Regular revision and mock tests can help in assessing the level of preparedness and improving performance.
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