Revision Notes: Motions of the Earth

# Class 6 Geography Chapter 3 Notes - Motions of the Earth

### Rotation

• Rotation is the movement of the Earth, on its axis.
• The axis of the Earth, which is an imaginary line, makes an angle of 66/2° with its orbital plane.
• The portion facing the Sun experiences day, while the other half away from the Sun experiences night.
• The circle that divides the day from night on the globe is called the circle of illumination.
• The Earth takes about 24 hrs to complete one rotation around its axis, it is known as earthday.

### Revolution

• The movement of the Earth around the Sun in a fixed path or orbit is called revolution.
• Earth takes 365)4 days to revolve around the Sun.
• Every fourth year, February is of 29 days instead of 28 days. Such a year with 366 days is called a leap year.
• Earth is going around the Sun in an elliptical-orbit.
• Seasons change due to change in the position of the Earth around the Sun.
• Summer solstice is the position of the Earth when the Northern Hemisphere has the longest day and the shortest night. It occurs on 21st June.
• In the Southern Hemisphere, it is winter season at this time. The days are short and the nights are long.
• Winter Solstice is the position of the earth when Southern Hemisphere has long days and shorter nights. In the Northern.
• Hemisphere, the days are short and the nights are long. It occurs on 22nd December.
• On 21st March and September 23rd, direct rays of the sun fall on the equator and the whole earth experiences equal days and equal nights. This is called an equinox.
The earth has two types of motions—rotation and revolution. Rotation is the movement of the earth on its axis. In revolution the earth moves around the sun in a fixed path or orbit.
The axis of the earth is an imaginary line. The earth receives light from the sun. As the shape of the earth is spherical, only half of it gets light from the sun at a time. The other half remains dark. In this way day and night are caused. The earth completes one rotation around its axis in about 24 hours. This rotation is the daily motion of the earth.
• The earth takes 365 14 days or one year to complete one revolution around the sun.
• There are four seasons in a year—summer, winter, spring and autumn. Seasons change due to the change in the position of the earth around the sun.
• The rays of sun fall directly on the Tropic of Cancer. Hence, these areas are hot.
• The areas near the poles receive less heat as the rays of the sun are slanting.
• In the Northern Hemisphere the longest day and the shortest night occur on 21st June. In the Southern Hemisphere the shortest day and the longest night occur on this day. This position of the earth is known as the summer solstice.
• When there is summer in the Northern Hemisphere, Southern Hemisphere enjoys winter season and vice-versa.
• In the Northern Hemisphere the shortest day and the longest night occur on 22nd December. In the Southern Hemisphere the longest day and the shortest night occur on this day. This position of the earth is known as the winter solstice.
• On 21st March and September 23rd the whole earth experiences equal’days and equal nights. This is phenomenon is known as equinox.
• On 23rd September, it is autumn in the Northern Hemisphere and spring in the Sourthern Hemisphere.
• On 21st March, it is spring in the Northern Hemisphere and autumn in the Sourthern Hemisphere.
• Days and nights occur due to rotation while changes in seasons occur due to revolution.
Rotation: The movement of the earth on its axis is known as rotation.

Revolution: The movement of the earth around the sun in a fixed path or orbit is known as revolution.
Orbital plane: The plane formed by the orbit is known as the orbital plane.
Circle of illumination: The circle that divides the day from night on the globe is called the circle of illumination.
Leap year: The year in which February is of 29 days instead of 28 days is called a leap year.
Summer solstice: In the Northern Hemisphere the longest day and the shortest night occur on 21st June. In the Southern Hemisphere, the shortest day and the longest night occur on this day. This position of the earth is called summer solstice.
Winter solstice: In the Northern Hemisphere the shortest day and the longest night occur on 22nd December. In the Southern Hemisphere, the longest day and the shortest night occur on this day. This position of the earth is called winter solstice.
Equinox: On 21st March and September 23rd the entire earth experiences equal days and equal nights. This is known as the equinox.

The document Class 6 Geography Chapter 3 Notes - Motions of the Earth is a part of the Class 6 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 6.
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## FAQs on Class 6 Geography Chapter 3 Notes - Motions of the Earth

 1. What are the motions of the Earth?
Ans. The motions of the Earth include rotation on its axis and revolution around the Sun. Rotation is the Earth's spinning on its axis, which causes day and night. Revolution is the Earth's movement in an elliptical orbit around the Sun, which determines the change of seasons.
 2. How long does it take for the Earth to complete one rotation?
Ans. It takes approximately 24 hours for the Earth to complete one rotation on its axis. This rotation causes the cycle of day and night.
 3. What is the duration of the Earth's revolution around the Sun?
Ans. The Earth takes approximately 365.25 days to complete one revolution around the Sun. This period is known as a year.
 4. How does the Earth's rotation affect the apparent movement of the Sun and stars?
Ans. The Earth's rotation causes the apparent movement of the Sun and stars. As the Earth spins on its axis, it gives the illusion that the Sun and stars are moving from east to west. This movement is responsible for the rising and setting of the Sun and the apparent rotation of the stars across the night sky.
 5. What causes the change of seasons on Earth?
Ans. The change of seasons on Earth is caused by the Earth's revolution around the Sun and its tilted axis. As the Earth orbits the Sun, different parts of the Earth receive varying amounts of sunlight throughout the year, leading to the change in seasons. The tilt of the Earth's axis also plays a crucial role in determining the intensity and duration of each season.

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