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Landforms

A landform is a feature on the Earth’s surface that is part of the terrain. These different physical features are called the various landforms on the surface of the earth. Landforms can be grouped based on the elevation and slope and they are:

  • Mountains
  • Plateaus
  • Plains
  • Hills
  • Valleys
  • Deserts

Mountains

  • Any natural elevation of the earth surface is called a mountain.
  • Range - Mountains arranged in a line.
  • Glaciers - Glaciers are permanently frozen rivers of ice in mountains.

There are three types of mountains and they are:

(i) Fold Mountains

  • They are rugged relief and high conical peaks.
  • For example, Himalayan Mountains and the Alps (Young fold mountains).
  • The Aravali range in India (Oldest fold mountain system in the world).
  • The Appalachians in North America and the Ural mountains in Russia (very old fold mountains).

(ii) Block mountains

  • Created when large mass of land are broken and displaced vertically.
  • For example, The Rhine Valley and the Vosges mountain in Europe

(iii) Volcanic mountains

  • Formed due to volcanic activity.
  • For example, Mt. Kilimanjaro in Africa and Mt. Fujiyama in Japan.

Hills

  • Hills are lower than mountains but are higher than their surrounding areas.
  • The climate here is more pleasant than the climate in high snow-covered mountains.
  • It is neither too hot nor too cold.

Plateau

  • A plateau is an elevated flat land.
  • It is a flat-topped table land standing above the surrounding area.
  • For example, the Deccan plateau in India is one of the oldest plateaus.
  • The Western plateau of Australia, the East African Plateau in Kenya (The Tanzania and Uganda), the Tibet Plateau (the highest plateau in the world), etc.

Plains

  • Plains are large stretches of flat land.
  • Generally, they not more than 200 metres above main sea level.
  • Generally, plains are very fertile; hence these plains are very thickly-populated regions of the world.
  • Largest plains made by the rivers are found in Asia and North America.
  • Large plains in Asia are formed by the Ganga and the Brahmaputra in India and the Yangtze in China.

Valleys

Valleys are low lying areas between two mountains or hills.

There are three main types of valleys: the shaped valley, the flat floored valley and U-shaped valley. Valleys are most commonly drained by rivers.

Deserts

Deserts are large, dry and hot areas of land which receive very little rainfall throughout the year. There are two types of deserts: hot deserts and cold deserts.

Basics: World Geography | GK Olympiad for Class 6

Major Oceans of the World

  1. The Pacific Ocean
    The Pacific is the largest of these oceans, covering 63,784,077 sq miles (165,200,000 km²). It fills the area between the western coastline of the Americas, the eastern coastlines of Asia and Australia, and is capped to the North and South by the Arctic and Antarctic regions.
  2. The Atlantic Ocean
    The next largest ocean is the Atlantic, with an area of 41,081,270 sq miles (106,400,000 km²). It is bounded by the Americas to its west, and by the western shores of Europe and Africa to its east. It includes the Mediterranean, Caribbean and Baltic Seas, and the Gulf of Mexico.
  3. Indian Ocean
    The Indian Ocean covers a 28,400,130 sq mile (73,556,000 km²) area between the eastern coast of Africa, the shores of the Middle East and India to its north, and is separated from the Atlantic Ocean by Southeast Asia and Australia/Oceania. Home to a great variety of humankind throughout history, the Indian Ocean is also rich in exotic plant and animal species.
  4. Artctic Ocean
    At 5,400,025 sq miles, the Arctic is the smallest and shallowest of the five Oceans, and falls mostly within the Arctic Circle. It is surrounded by the Eurasian and North American continents, and includes Hudson Bay and the North and Barents Seas.
  5. Southern Ocean
    Southern ocean is also known as Antarctic Ocean. It is the only that surrounds a continent. It comprises the water located in the Southern hemisphere.

Major rivers of the world

Rivers have been very useful to men in all parts of the world since prehistoric times. They provide a source of drinking water, for obtaining food, to fertilize lands and way to transport goods from place to place.
Basics: World Geography | GK Olympiad for Class 6

Basics: World Geography | GK Olympiad for Class 6

Important places of the world

  1. The Statue of Liberty, New York (USA)
  2. The Eiffel Tower, Paris (France)
  3. Mecca, Saudi Arabia
  4. Acropolis of Athens, Greece
  5. Niagara Falls, Border of Ontario (Canada) and New York (USA)
  6. Angkor Wat, Cambodia
  7. St. Peter’s Cathedral, Vatican City
  8. Mount Rushmore, South Dakota (USA)
  9. The Grand Canyon Arizona (USA)
  10. Sydney Opera House, Australia
  11. The Empire State Building, New York
  12. Tower of Pisa, Italy
  13. The Burj al Arab Hotel, Dubai
  14. Stonehenge, Wiltshire, United Kingdom
  15. Big Ben: London (UK)

Wonders of the world

Over the ages, many man made constructions and natural things have been listed as the wonders of the world. These are discussed below.

  1. The Great wall of china
    Built between the 5th century B.C. and the 16th century, the Great Wall of China is a stone-and-earth fortification, created to protect the borders of the Chinese Empire from invading Mongols. The Great Wall is actually a succession  of multiple walls spanning approximately 4,000 miles, making it the world’s longest man-made structure.
  2. Christ the redeemer statue, Brazil
    Christ the Redeemer statue has been watching over the Brazilians from upon Corcovado mountain in an aweinspiring state of eternal blessing since 1931. The 130-foot reinforced concrete-and-soapstone statue was designed by Paul and costed approximately $250,000 to build.  Much of the money was raised through donations. The statue has become an easily recognized icon of Rio and Brazil.
  3. Chichen Itza, mexico
    The genius and adaptability of Mayan culture can be seen in the splendid ruins of Chichen Itza. This powerful city, a trading center for cloth, slaves, honey and salt, flourished from approximately 600 to 1200 AD, and acted as the political and economic hub of the Mayan civilization. The most familiar ruin at the site is El Caracol, a sophisticated astronomical observatory.
  4. The colosseum, Italy
    Rome’s most enduring icon is undoubtedly its Colosseum. Built between 70 AD and 80 AD, it was in use for some 500 years. The elliptical structure had a capacity of nearly 50,000 spectators, who gathered to watch the gladiatorial events as well as other public spectacles, including battle re-enactment, animal hunts and executions. Earthquakes and stone-robbers have left the Colosseum in a state of ruin, but portions of the structure remain open to tourists, and its design still influences the construction of modern-day amphitheaters, some 2,000 years later.
  5. Taj mahal, India
    A mausoleum commissioned for the wife of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, the Taj Mahal was built between 1632 and 1648. Considered the perfect specimen of Muslim art in India, the white-marble Taj Mahal actually represents a number of architectural styles, including Persian, Islamic, Turkish and Indian. The Taj Mahal also encompasses formal gardens of raised pathways, sunken flower beds and a linear reflecting pool.
  6. Petra, jordan
    Declared a World Heritage Site in 1985, Petra was the capital of the Nabataean empire of King Aretas IV, and likely existed in its prime from 9 BC to 40 AD. The members of this civilization proved to be early experts in manipulating water technology, constructing intricate tunnels and water chambers, which helped create a pseudo-oasis. A number of incredible structures carved into stone, a 4,000-seat amphitheatre and the Ad-Deir monastery have also helped the site earn its fame.
  7. Machu Picchu, Peru
    The ruins of Machu Picchu are one of the most beautiful sites. They are also called Last City of the Incas. It consists of palaces, baths, temples, storage rooms and about 150 houses. They are built of white granite.
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FAQs on Basics: World Geography - GK Olympiad for Class 6

1. What is the importance of studying world geography in Class 6?
Ans. Studying world geography in Class 6 is important because it helps students develop a better understanding of the world around them. It allows them to learn about different countries, cultures, and landscapes, which promotes global awareness and appreciation for diversity. Furthermore, it helps students develop crucial skills such as map reading, spatial thinking, and critical analysis.
2. How does studying world geography benefit students in their daily lives?
Ans. Studying world geography benefits students in their daily lives in several ways. It helps them understand the interconnectedness of the world and how their actions can have global consequences. It also enhances their knowledge about different regions, climates, and natural resources, which can be useful when making informed decisions about travel, environmental conservation, or even career choices. Additionally, it promotes cultural sensitivity and understanding, fostering respect for people from different backgrounds.
3. What are some key topics covered in a Class 6 world geography curriculum?
Ans. A Class 6 world geography curriculum typically covers various topics such as continents, countries, capitals, major landforms, rivers, climate zones, natural resources, and population distribution. Students may also learn about important geographical features like mountains, deserts, and oceans. Additionally, they may explore cultural aspects such as languages, religions, and traditions of different regions around the world.
4. How can students improve their map reading skills in world geography?
Ans. Students can improve their map reading skills in world geography by practicing regularly. They should start by familiarizing themselves with different types of maps, such as political, physical, and thematic maps. They can then learn to identify and interpret various map symbols, legends, and scales. Engaging in map-based activities and quizzes can also help them develop spatial awareness and the ability to locate places accurately.
5. How does studying world geography contribute to a student's global citizenship?
Ans. Studying world geography contributes to a student's global citizenship by fostering an understanding of global issues, cultures, and interconnections. It helps students develop empathy, respect, and appreciation for different perspectives and ways of life. This knowledge and awareness of the world enable students to become responsible global citizens who can actively participate in addressing global challenges, promoting peace, and advocating for sustainable development.
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