|Table of contents
|Multiple Choice Questions
|Fill in the Blank
|Very Short Answer Questions
|Short Answer Questions
|Long Answer Question
Q1: Mountain ranges in the eastern part of India forming its boundary with Myanmar are collectively called as
(d) none of the above
Q2: The highest peak in the Eastern Ghats is
(a) Anai Mudi
Q3: A landmass bounded by sea on three sides is referred to as
(d) none of the above
Q4: The northern most range of the Himalayas is known as
(b) lesser Himalaya
(d) None of the above.
Q5: Majuli is a riverine island located in the river
Q6: The soil containing calcareous deposits is locally known as
Q7: Barchans are found in
(a) desert regions
(d) hilly regions
Q8: Lake Chilika lies in the state of
(d) Tamil Nadu
Q9: Mountain ranges in the eastern part of India forming its boundary with Myanmar are collectively called as
(d) none of the above
Q10: The highest peak in the Eastern Ghats is
(a) Anai Mudi
Q1: The most continuous range consisting of the loftiest peaks with an average height of 6,000 metres is known as the ________ .
Ans: The most continuous range consisting of the loftiest peaks with an average height of 6,000 metres is known as the Himadri
Q2: The part lying between Teesta and Dihang rivers is the ________ .
Ans: The part lying between Teesta and Dihang rivers is the Assam Himalayas
Q3: The hills of Purvachal or the Eastern hills are composed of ________ .
Ans: The hills of Purvachal or the Eastern hills are composed of Sedimentary rocks
Q4: The largest delta in the world is ________ .
Ans: The largest delta in the world is Sunderban Delta
Q5: The flow of rivers, the Chambal, the Sindh, the Betwa and the Ken, is from ________ .
Ans: The flow of rivers, the Chambal, the Sindh, the Betwa and the Ken, is from outhwest to northeast.
Q1: What are Duns?
Ans: The longitudinal valley lying between lesser Himalaya and the Shiwaliks are known as Duns. Dehra Dun, Kotli Dun and Patli Dun are some of the well-known Duns.
Q2: Why does India have diversity in its relief? State any two reasons for it.
Reasons for diversity in relief:
(i) Different geological periods.
(ii) Different geological processes - Weathering, erosion and deposition.
Q3: Which river has the largest inhabited riverine island in the world?
Ans: Majuli, in the Brahmaputra River is the largest inhabited riverine island in the world.
Q4: Write a short note on Aravali hills
Ans: The Aravali Hills lie on the western and northwestern margins of the peninsular plateau. These are highly eroded hills and are found as broken hills. They extend from Gujarat to Delhi in a southwest-northeast direction.
Q5: What are the features of Khadar?
(i) The newer, younger deposits of the flood plains are called khadar.
(ii) They are renewed almost every year and so are fertile, thus, ideal for intensive agriculture
Q6: Which is the highest peak in Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats?
Ans: The highest peaks in Western Ghats include the Anai Mudi (2,695metres) and the Doda Betta (2,637 metres). Mahendragiri (1,501 metres) is the highest peak in the Eastern Ghats.
Q7: What do you mean by the 'Theory of Plate Tectonics'?
Ans: According to this theory, the crust (upper part) of the earth has been formed out of seven major and some minor plates. The movement of the plates results in the building up of stresses within the plates and the continental rocks above, leading to folding, faulting and volcanic activity.
Q8: What are the two parts of the eastern coastal plains?
Ans: The eastern coastal plain lies between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal. In the northern part, it is referred to as the Northern Circar, while the southern part is known as the Coromandel Coast
Q9: What is the Deccan Trap?
Ans: One of the distinct features of the peninsular plateau is the black soil area known as Decean Trap. This is of volcanic origin hence the rocks are igneous. Actually these rocks have denuded over time and are responsible for the formation of black soil.
Q10: Which continents of today were part of the Gondwana land?
Ans: The Gondwana land included India, Australia, South Africa, South America and Antarctica as one single land mass.
Q11: Name the three major divisions of the Himalayas from north to south.
Ans: The Himalaya consists of three parallel ranges in its longitudinal extent.
(i) Great or Inner Himalayas or the ‘Himadri’
(ii) Himachal or lesser Himalaya
Q12: Name the island group of India having coral origin.
Ans: Lakshadweep Islands is the island group of India having coral origin.
Q13: What are tectonic plates?
Ans: The crust (upper part) of the earth has been formed out of seven major and some minor plates. These are called tectonic plates.
Q14: What is the bhabar?
Ans: The rivers, after descending from the mountains deposit pebbles in a narrow belt of about 8 to 16 km in width lying parallel to the slopes of the Shiwaliks. It is known as bhabar
Q15: Which plateau lies between the Aravali and the Vindhyan ranges?
Ans: Malwa plateau lies between the Aravali and the Vindhyan ranges
Q1: Write a short note on Deccan Plateau.
Ans: The Deccan Plateau is a triangular landmass that lies to the south of the river Narmada. The Satpura range flanks its broad base in the north, while the Mahadev, the Kaimur hills and the Maikal range form its eastern extensions. The Deccan Plateau is higher in the west and slopes gently eastwards. An extension of the Plateau is also visible in the northeast, locally known as the Meghalaya, Karbi-Anglong Plateau and North Cachar Hills. It is separated by a fault from the Chotanagpur Plateau. Three prominent hill ranges from the west to the east are the Garo, the Khasi and the Jaintia Hills. The Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats mark the western and the eastern edges of the ‘ Deccan Plateau respectively.
Q2: Describe the river systems of the Northern Plains.
Ans: The three river systems in the Northern plains from east to west are the Brahmaputra, Ganga and Indus. A large part of the Indus system lies in Pakistan. The Indus and its tributaries – the Jhelum, the Chenab, the Ravi, the Beas and the Satluj originate in the Himalayas. This section of the plain is dominated by the doabs. The Ganga plain extends between the Ghaggar and Teesta rivers. It spreads over the states of Haryana, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, parts of Jharkhand and West Bengal. It has tributaries like the Yamuna, Gomati, Ghaghara, Son, Gandak and Kosi. The Brahmaputra Plain lies in Arunachal Pradesh and Assam.
Q3: Why are the Himalayas called as young mountains?
Ans: The Himalayas were formed recently in the earth’s history as a result of compression.
The sediments beneath the ocean were folded due to the compression and got uplifted. Therefore, they are known as young fold mountains. These mountains are still rising. The whole mountain represents a very youthful topography with high peaks, deep valleys and fast flowing rivers.
Q4: Write a short note on ‘coral polyps’.
Ans: Coral polyps are short-lived microscopic organisms, which live in colonies. They flourish in shallow, mud-free and warm waters. They secrete hard rock like substance. The coral secretion and their skeletons from coral deposits in the form of reefs.
They are mainly of three kinds—barrier reef, fringing reef and atolls. The Great Barrier Reef of Australia is a good example of the first kind of coral reefs. Atolls are circular or horse shoe-shaped coral reefs.
Q5: What do you mean Great Himalayas? Write its two characteristics.
Ans: The northern most range of the Himalayas is known as the Great or Inner Himalayas or the Himadri.
(a) It is the most continuous range consisting of the loftiest peaks with an average height of 6000 metres. It contains all prominent Himalayan peaks.
(b) Its folds are asymmetrical in nature and its core is composed of granite rock. It is perennially snow bound, and several glaciers descend from this range.
Q1: What is the significance of the Northern Plains?
Ans: The significance of the Northern Plain are :
This plain is made up of the alluvial soil brought down by the rivers. This soil is very soft and fertile. Major crops such as wheat, rice, sugarcane, pulses, oil seeds, etc. are grown here. This plain is the ‘food bowl’ of India.
The land of this plain is soft, levelled and flat. Therefore, wells, tubewells and canals can be dug for irrigation. Due to proper irrigation, it is the largest producer of foodgrains in india.
This plain gets sufficient rainfall. There are many rivers, streams and lakes. There is also rich vegetation. These factors affect the climate. The climate of the Northern Plains is very cold in winter and very hot in summer.
This is one of the most thickly populated plain of the world. The most thickly populated states of India, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, lie in this plain.
Q2: How do different physiographic regions of India complement each other?
Ans: A detailed account of the different physiographic units highlights the unique features of each region :
(a) Each region complements the other and makes the country richer in its natural resources.
(b) The mountains are the major source of water and forest wealth.
(c) The Northern Plains are the granaries of the country. They provided the base for early civilizations.
(d) The plateau is a storehouse of minerals, which has played a crucial role in the industrialization of the country.
(e) The coastal region and island groups provide sites for fishing and port activities. Thus, the diverse physical features of the land have immense future possibilities of development.
Q3: Write in detail about the Himalayan mountains.
Ans: The Himalaya mountains lie between the Indus river and the Brahmaputra river which covers a distance of about 2,400 kilometres. They consist of three parallel ranges-the Himadri, the Himachal and the Shiwaliks from north to south. The Himadri or the Great Himalayas is the highest of all with an average height of more than 6,000 metres above sea level. It contains some of the world’s highest peaks, such as Mt. Everest in Nepal (8,848 metres high, the highest peak in the world), Kanchanjunga, Nanga Parbat, Nanda Devi, Dhaulagiri, Makalu and Annapurna. Kanchenjunga (8,598 metres) in Sikkim is the highest peak of the Himalayas in India.
To the south of the Himadri is the Himachal, also called the Middle or Lesser Himalayas. The range is mainly composed of highly compressed and altered rocks. The altitude varies between 3,600 and 4,500 metres and the average width is of 50 km. Many important hill stations such as Shimla, Manali, Kullu, Mussourie, Nainital and Darjeeling are situated in the Himachal range.
The southern-most range, which is rather discontinuous, is the Shiwalik. The extend over a width of 10-50 km and have an altitude varying between 900 and 1100 metres. There are a number of broad longitudinal valleys called duns, especially in the Kumaon Himalayas of Uttarakhand. Dehradun is situated in one such valley. There are many passes like the Shipki La, Nathu La and the Bomdi La in the Himalayas.
Q4: What is the significance of Himalayas?
Ans: The significance of Himalayas is as follows :
(a) The Himalayas stand like a mighty mountain wall in the north of India. They ‘ separate the Indian subcontinent from the rest of Asia.
(b) They have vast snowfields and glaciers which are the source of numerous perennial rivers. These rivers provide water for irrigation, navigation and generation of hydel power.
(c) The Himalayas act as a climatic barrier. They protect the Northern Plains from freezing cold winds. They also stop and deflect the rain-bearing winds.
(d) The forests in the Himalayas provide a suitable habitat for wildlife. They also have many wildlife sanctuaries.
(e) The Himalayas also have many beautiful hill stations like Shimla, Mussoorie, Nainital and Darjeeling, which attract tourists.
Q5: Which part of the Himalayas is known as Purvachal? Write a short note on the Purvachal Himalayas.
Ans: The eastern hills and mountains of the Himalayas running along the eastern boundary of India are known as Purvachal. They are in the northeastern states of India.
The Brahmaputra marks the eastern-most boundary of the Himalayas. Beyond the Dihang gorge, the Himalayas bend sharply to the south and spread along the eastern boundary of India. They are known as the Purvachal or the Eastern hills and mountains. These hills running trough the north-eastern states are mostly composed of strong sandstones, which are sedimentary rocks. Covered with dense forests, they mostly run as parallel ranges and valleys. The Purvachal comprises the Patkai hills, the Naga hills, the Manipur hills and the Mizo hills.
|1. What are the major physical features of India?
|2. How does the Himalayas affect the climate of India?
|3. What is the significance of the Indo-Gangetic Plain?
|4. How does the Thar Desert influence the climate of India?
|5. What are the major rivers in India and their significance?