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UPSC Previous Year Questions (Prelims): The Freedom Struggle | History for UPSC CSE PDF Download

Q.1. Consider the following statements:         (2021)

  1. The Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms of 1919 recommended granting voting rights to all the women above the age 21.
  2. The Government of India Act of 1935 gave women reserved seats in legislature.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct? 
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Correct Answer is Option (b)

  • Mont-Ford Reforms- Also known as Government of India Act, 1919- didn’t gave voting rights to ’’all’’ women. Only limited franchise was given during this time, viz. voters qualification/criteria was the reason behind not giving universal adult suffrage
  • Government of India Act, 1935- reservation of seats – system of weightage to Women Members.


Q.2. In the context of Colonial India, Shah Nawaz Khan, Prem Kumar Sehgal and Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon are remembered as         (2021)
(a) leaders of Swadeshi and Boycott Movement
(b) members of the Interim Government in 1946
(c) members of the Drafting Committee in the Constituent Assembly
(d) officers of the Indian National Army

Correct Answer is Option (d)

  • Indian National Army – Azad Hind Fauj, was formed in 1942 by Captain Mohan Singh with the help of the Japanese, but due to differences it was disbanded.
  • Again in July 1943, Netaji Subhash Chandrabose reorganised the Indian National Army along with Ras Behari Bose and Japanese help.
  • The INA campaign was headed towards Kohima under the leadership of Capt. Shahnawaz Khan, which resulted into defeat.
  • After the end of WW-2, the INA was had to surrender to the British Army and later on 3 officials were court-martialled by Lord Wavell at Red Fort
  • Red Fort Trials - were defended by a series of lawerys, including KN Katju, Tejbahadur Sapru, JL Nehru- resulting into INA agitation across the country


Q.3. What was the main reason for the split in the Indian National Congress at Surat in 1907?         (2016-I)
(a) Introduction of communalism into Indian politics by Lord Minto 
(b) Extremists’ lack of faith in the capacity of the moderates to negotiate with the British Government 
(c) Foundation of Muslim League 
(d) Aurobindo Ghosh’s inability to be elected as the President of the Indian National Congress

Correct Answer is Option (b)

  • Extremists and moderates both seemed to be locking horns. The Extremists thought that the people had been encouraged and the battle for freedom had begun. They felt the time had come for the big push to drive the British out and considered the Moderates to be a stumbling block to the movement.
  • So, Surat split occurred because extremists were dissatisfied with Moderates’ capacity to negotiate with the British.

 

Q.4. The Montague-Chelmsford Proposals were related to         (2016-I)
(a) social reforms  
(b) educational reforms 
(c) reforms in police administration 
(d) constitutional reforms

Correct Answer is Option (d)

  • The Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms were reforms introduced by the British Government in India to introduce selfgoverning institutions gradually to India. The reforms were outlined in the Montagu-Chelmsford Report prepared in 1918 and formed the basis of the Government of India Act 1919.
  • They’re related to Constitutional reforms.


Q.5. The Government of India Act of 1919 clearly defined         (2015-1)
(a) the separation of power between thejudiciary and the legislature
(b) the jurisdiction of the central and provincial governments
(c) the powers of the Secretary of State for India and the Viceroy
(d) None of the above

Correct Answer is Option (b)
The Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms which became the Government of India Act in 1919 clearly defined the jurisdiction of the central and provincial governments.

 

Q.6. The  Partition of Bengal made by Lord Curzon in 1905 lasted until         (2014 - I)
(a) the First World  War  when Indian troops were needed by the British and the partition was ended
(b) King George V abrogated Curzon’s Act at the Royal Durbar in Delhi in 1911
(c) Gandhiji launched  his  Civil Disobedience Movement
(d) the Partition of India in 1947 when East Bengal became East Pakistan

Correct Answer is Option (b)
In 1911 King George V visited India. A durbar was  held at Delhi and The capital of India was transferred from Calcutta to Delhi also Partition of Bengal was annulled.

 

Q.7. With reference to Ryotwari Settlement, consider the following statements:         (2012 - I) 

  1. The rent was paid directly by the peasants to the Government. 
  2. The Government gave Pattas to the Ryots. 
  3. The lands were surveyed and assessed before being taxed. 

Which of the statements given above is/are correct? 
(a) 1 only 
(b) 1 and 2 only 
(c) 1, 2 and 3 
(d) None

Correct Answer is Option (c)
Ryotwari settlement, the rent was paid directly by the peasants to the Government and the Government gave pattas to the Ryots.


Q.8. Consider the following statements:         (2007) 

  1. Robert Clive was the first Governor-General of Bengal. 
  2. William Bentinck was the first Governor-General of India. 

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?  
(a) 1 only 
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Correct Answer is Option (b)
Statement 1 is incorrect as Warren Hastings was the first governor-general of Bengal.

The document UPSC Previous Year Questions (Prelims): The Freedom Struggle | History for UPSC CSE is a part of the UPSC Course History for UPSC CSE.
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FAQs on UPSC Previous Year Questions (Prelims): The Freedom Struggle - History for UPSC CSE

1. Who were the key leaders of the Indian freedom struggle?
Ans. The key leaders of the Indian freedom struggle include Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhash Chandra Bose, Bhagat Singh, and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, among others. These leaders played crucial roles in mobilizing the masses, organizing protests, and negotiating with the British authorities to secure India's independence.
2. What were the major events that shaped the freedom struggle in India?
Ans. Several major events shaped the freedom struggle in India. These include the Non-Cooperation Movement, the Salt March, the Quit India Movement, the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, and the Partition of India. Each of these events had a significant impact on the course of the freedom struggle and played a crucial role in awakening national consciousness and mobilizing the masses against British rule.
3. How did Mahatma Gandhi's principles of non-violence influence the freedom struggle?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi's principles of non-violence, also known as Satyagraha, had a profound influence on the freedom struggle in India. Gandhi believed in peaceful resistance, civil disobedience, and non-cooperation with the British authorities. His methods of protests, such as boycotts, strikes, and marches, inspired millions of Indians to join the struggle for independence. His philosophy of non-violence became a guiding principle for many other freedom fighters as well.
4. What role did women play in the Indian freedom struggle?
Ans. Women played a significant role in the Indian freedom struggle. They actively participated in various movements, including the Non-Cooperation Movement, the Quit India Movement, and the Civil Disobedience Movement. Prominent women leaders like Sarojini Naidu, Annie Besant, and Kamala Nehru contributed to the mobilization of women and fought for their rights. Many women also faced imprisonment, torture, and even death while fighting for the country's independence.
5. How did the Indian freedom struggle lead to the partition of India?
Ans. The Indian freedom struggle, coupled with communal tensions, eventually led to the partition of India in 1947. The demand for a separate homeland for Muslims, led by the Muslim League and Muhammad Ali Jinnah, gained momentum during the freedom struggle. The British government, in response to the communal tensions and the inability to find a consensus between different religious groups, decided to divide the country into India and Pakistan. The partition resulted in widespread violence, mass migration, and the loss of countless lives.
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