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UPSC Prelims PYQs: Constitution of India- History, Development & Salient Features | Indian Polity for UPSC CSE PDF Download

Q.1. Which one of the following in Indian polity is an essential feature that indicates that it is federal in character?       (2021)
(a) The independence of judiciary is safeguarded.
(b) The Union Legislature has elected representatives from constituent units.
(c) The Union Cabinet can have elected representatives from regional parties.
(d) The Fundamental Rights are enforceable by Courts of Law

Correct Answer is Option (a)
Key features of federalism:

  • There are two or more levels (or tiers) of government.
  • Different tiers of government govern the same citizens, but each tier has its own jurisdiction in specific matters of legislation, taxation and administration.
  • The jurisdictions of the respective levels or tiers of government are specified in the constitution. So the existence and authority of each tier of government is constitutionally guaranteed.
  • The fundamental provisions of the constitution cannot be unilaterally changed by one level of government. Such changes require the consent of both the levels of government.
  • Courts have the power to interpret the constitution and the powers of different levels of government.
  • The highest court acts as an umpire if disputes arise between different levels of government in the exercise of their respective powers. The most important feature of the federal system adopted by the Indian Constitution is the principle that relations between the States and the centre would be based on cooperation. And for this, Independent Judiciary is the prerequisite. Hence, Option (a) is correct.
  • Sources of revenue for each level of government are clearly specified to ensure its financial Autonomy..


Q.2. One common agreement between Gandhism and Marxism is       (2020-I)
(a) The final goal of a stateless society
(b) Class struggle

(c) Abolition of private property
(d) Economic determinism

Correct Answer is Option (a)

  • Stateless Society: A society which lacks formal institutions of government.
  • Gandhiji is a philosophical anarchist. Anarchist is one who is opposed to every type of state; Gandhian Ramrajya is that it is a self-regulating system where everyone is one’s own ruler.
  • Marxism revolves a classless society and stateless society. Karl Marx had predicted that the proletariats will take control of the state and production, the, destroy all class differences and class antagonisms, and finally resulting in the ‘withering Away of the State’. Thus, the end result will be a stateless society.
  • Thus, we can inform that both Gandhi & Marx aimed for Stateless society.


Q.3. In the federation established by The Government on India Act of 1935. Residuary Power were given to the       (2018-I)
(a) Federal Legislature
(b) Governor General
(c) Provincial Legislature
(d) Provincial Governors

Correct Answer is Option (b)
Residuary powers were in the hands of Governor General.


Q.4. With reference to Indian History, the Members of the Constituent Assembly from the Provinces were        (2013 - I)
(a) directly elected by the people of those Provinces
(b) nominated by the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League
(c) elected by the Provincial Legislative Assemblies
(d) selected by the Government for their expertise in constitutional matters

Correct Answer is Option (c)
The members of the constituent Assembly from the provinces were indirectly elected by the members of the provincial assemblies, who themselves were elected on a limited franchise.


Q.5. The distribution of powers between the Centre and the States in the Indian Constitution is based on the Act provided in the       (2012 - I)
(a) Morley-Minto Reforms, 1909
(b) Montagu-Chelmsford Act, 1919
(c) Government of India Act, 1935
(d) Indian Independence Act, 1947

Correct Answer is Option (c)
Distribution of power between the Centre and the States in the Indian Constitution is based on the Government of India Act. 1935.

 

Q.6. Consider the following statements:       (2005)

  1. The Constitution of India has 20 parts.
  2. There are 390 Articles in the Constitution of India in all.
  3. Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh and Twelfth Schedules were added to the Constitution of India by the Constitution (Amendment) Acts.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 only

(c) 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Correct Answer is Option (c)
The Constitution of India has 24 parts, 12 schedules and more than 444 articles at present. In the original constitution, there were 22 parts, 8 schedules and 395 articles. Ninth Schedule was added by 1st Constitutional Amendment Act, 1951. Tenth Schedule was added by 52nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1985. Eleventh Schedule was added by 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992. Twelfth Schedule was added by 74th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992


Q.7. Who among the following was the chairman of the Union Constitution Committee of the Constituent Assembly?         (2005)
(a) B.R. Ambedkar
(b) J. B. Kripalani
(c) Jawaharalal Nehru
(d) Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar

Correct Answer is Option (c)
Chairman of different Committees of Constituent Assembly: Union Power Committee – Jawaharlal Nehru, Drafting Committee – B R Ambedkar, Flag Committee – J B Kriplani, Fundamental Rights and Minority Committee – Vallabh Bhai Patel, Provincial Constitution Committee – Vallabh Bhai Patel. Jawaharlal Nehru was the chairman of the Union Constitution Committee.

The document UPSC Prelims PYQs: Constitution of India- History, Development & Salient Features | Indian Polity for UPSC CSE is a part of the UPSC Course Indian Polity for UPSC CSE.
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FAQs on UPSC Prelims PYQs: Constitution of India- History, Development & Salient Features - Indian Polity for UPSC CSE

1. What is the history of the Constitution of India?
Ans. The Constitution of India was adopted on 26th November 1949 by the Constituent Assembly. It came into effect on 26th January 1950, replacing the Government of India Act (1935). The drafting committee, headed by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, played a crucial role in formulating the Constitution. The Constitution of India is the supreme law of the country and provides a framework for the governance of the nation.
2. What are the salient features of the Constitution of India?
Ans. The salient features of the Constitution of India include: 1. Lengthy and Detailed: The Indian Constitution is one of the longest written constitutions in the world, with 448 articles and 12 schedules. 2. Federal System with Unitary Bias: India follows a federal system, where powers are divided between the central government and the state governments. However, the Constitution also provides for a strong center with more powers allocated to the central government. 3. Fundamental Rights: The Constitution guarantees various fundamental rights to the citizens, such as the right to equality, right to freedom of speech and expression, right to religious freedom, etc. 4. Directive Principles of State Policy: The Constitution also contains Directive Principles of State Policy, which are guidelines for the government in formulating policies for the welfare of the people. 5. Independent Judiciary: The Constitution establishes an independent judiciary to safeguard the rights and liberties of the citizens.
3. What is the development process of the Constitution of India?
Ans. The development process of the Constitution of India can be broadly divided into the following stages: 1. Cabinet Mission Plan (1946): The Cabinet Mission Plan was a proposal to create a united India with a federal structure. It laid the foundation for the Constituent Assembly and the process of drafting the Constitution. 2. Constituent Assembly (1946-1949): The Constituent Assembly was formed to draft the Constitution. It consisted of elected representatives from the provinces and princely states. The drafting committee, headed by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, prepared the final draft of the Constitution. 3. Adoption and Enactment (1949-1950): The Constitution was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26th November 1949. It came into effect on 26th January 1950, marking the establishment of the Republic of India. 4. Amendments and Evolution: Over the years, the Constitution has been amended several times to meet the changing needs of the country. Amendments have been made to address social issues, expand rights, and reflect the evolving nature of Indian society.
4. What are the fundamental rights provided by the Constitution of India?
Ans. The Constitution of India guarantees the following fundamental rights to its citizens: 1. Right to Equality: This includes the right to equality before the law, prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth. 2. Right to Freedom: This includes the right to freedom of speech and expression, assembly, association, movement, residence, and the right to practice any profession, occupation, trade, or business. 3. Right Against Exploitation: This prohibits all forms of forced labor, child labor, and trafficking of human beings. 4. Right to Freedom of Religion: This includes the freedom to practice, profess, and propagate any religion, subject to public order, morality, and health. 5. Cultural and Educational Rights: This includes the right to protect the language, script, and culture of minorities, as well as the right to establish and administer educational institutions.
5. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy in the Constitution of India?
Ans. The Directive Principles of State Policy in the Constitution of India are a set of guidelines for the government to ensure social, economic, and political justice in society. Some of the important Directive Principles are: 1. Equal pay for equal work for both men and women. 2. Provision of free and compulsory education for children up to the age of 14. 3. Protection of the environment and promotion of sustainable development. 4. Provision of opportunities for the healthy development of children. 5. Promotion of agriculture and rural development. 6. Promotion of cottage industries and small-scale industries in rural areas. 7. Provision of a living wage to workers. 8. Promotion of scientific temper and the spirit of inquiry and reform. 9. Protection and improvement of public health. 10. Promotion of international peace and security.
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