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Water Resources Summary Class 10 Social Science Chapter 3

Water

  • Water is a renewable resource
  • Three-fourth of the earth’s surface is covered with water but only a small proportion of it accounts for freshwater fit for use.

Some facts and Figures

  • 96.5 percent of the total volume of world’s water is estimated to exist as oceans and only 2.5 per cent as freshwater.
  • India receives nearly 4 percent of the global precipitation and ranks 133 in the world in terms of water availability per person per annum.
  • By 2025, it is predicted that large parts of India will join countries or regions having absolute water scarcity.

Water Scarcity and need for water conservation and management

  • The lack sufficient water as compared to its demand in a region is known as Water Scarcity.
  • Causes of Water Scarcity are:
    • over-exploitation
    • excessive use and unequal access to water among different social groups.
    • Large population

Dams

  • A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the flow, often creating a reservoir, lake or impoundment.

Multi-Purpose River Projects

  • Multi-purpose river projects large dams that serve several purposes in addition to impounding the water of a river and used later to irrigate agricultural fields. For example, the Sutluj-Beas river basin, the Bhakra–Nangal project etc.

Advantages of multi-purpose river projects are:

  • Electricity generation
  • Irrigation
  • Water supply for domestic and industrial uses
  • Flood control
  • Recreation
  • Inland navigation 
  • Fish breeding

Disadvantages of Multi-purpose river projects are:

  • It affects the natural flow of river causing poor sediment flow and excessive sedimentation at the bottom of the reservoir.
  • It destroys the habitats for the rivers’ aquatic life.
  • It submerges the existing vegetation and soil if created on the floodplains.
  • It displaces the local people of the place where it is created.
  • These are unsuccessful in controlling floods at the time of excessive rainfall.
  • These projects induced earthquakes, caused water- borne diseases and pests and pollution resulting from excessive use of water.

Movements against Mult-purpose river projects

  • These projects cause of many new social movements like the ‘Narmada Bachao Andolan’ and the ‘Tehri Dam Andolan’ etc.
    • This is due to the large-scale displacement of local communities.
  • Inter-state water disputes are also becoming common with regard to sharing the costs and benefits of the multi-purpose project.

Rainwater Harvesting

  • Rainwater Harvesting refers to the practice of storing and using of rainwater from the surface on which it falls.
  • In hill and mountainous regions, people built diversion channels like the ‘guls’ or ‘kuls’ of the Western Himalayas for agriculture.
  • In Rajasthan, ‘Rooftop rain water harvesting’ was commonly practised to store drinking water.
  • In the flood plains of Bengal, people developed inundation channels to irrigate their fields. 
  • In arid and semi-arid regions, agricultural fields were converted into rain fed storage structures that allowed the water to stand and moisten the soil.
  • In the semi-arid and arid regions of Rajasthan, almost all the houses traditionally had underground tanks or tankas for storing drinking water.

How Tankas works:

  • Tankas were connected to the sloping roofs of the houses through a pipe.
  • Rain falling on the rooftops would travel down the pipe and was stored in these underground ‘tankas’.
The document Water Resources Summary Class 10 Social Science Chapter 3 is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
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FAQs on Water Resources Summary Class 10 Social Science Chapter 3

1. What are the main sources of water resources?
Ans. The main sources of water resources include rivers, lakes, groundwater, and rainfall.
2. How does water scarcity affect agriculture?
Ans. Water scarcity can have a severe impact on agriculture as it leads to crop failure, reduced productivity, and loss of livelihood for farmers.
3. What are the consequences of over-exploitation of groundwater?
Ans. Over-exploitation of groundwater can lead to a decline in the water table, depletion of aquifers, land subsidence, and seawater intrusion into coastal areas.
4. How can water conservation be promoted at the individual level?
Ans. Water conservation at the individual level can be promoted by fixing leaky faucets and pipes, using water-efficient appliances, practicing rainwater harvesting, and adopting responsible water usage habits.
5. What are the challenges faced in managing water resources sustainably?
Ans. Some of the challenges faced in managing water resources sustainably include increasing water demand, pollution of water bodies, climate change impacts, inadequate infrastructure, and equitable distribution of water.
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