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Weekly Current Affairs (8th to 14th August 2022) - 2 | Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly - UPSC PDF Download

Airspace Violations Near LAC

Context: Recently, India and China held a special round of military talks on Air space Violations at the Chushul-Moldo border meeting point in Eastern Ladakh.

  • The talks were held against the backdrop of the "provocative behaviour" by Chinese fighters flying close to the Line of Actual Control (LAC) often violating the 10-km no-fly zone Confidence Building Measure (CBM).

Why do Such Incidents Keep Happening?

  • The LAC is not fully demarcated and there are differences of perception on the alignment due to which such incidents keep happening.
  • To maintain peace and tranquillity along the LAC, the two sides regularly hold talks at various levels on the ground.
  • Since the stand-off began in eastern Ladakh in May 2020, both sides have forward deployed air assets along the LAC and also augmented bases and air defences.

What is the Picture of India China Recent Conflicts?

  • The June 2020 clash in the Galwan Valley - fought with sticks and clubs, not guns - was the first fatal confrontation between the two sides since 1975.
    • The most recent conflict was - in January 2021 - left troops on both sides injured. It took place along the border in India's Sikkim state, which is sandwiched between Bhutan and Nepal.
  • Lately, the Chinese have been complaining about the IAF upgrading its capability to detect Chinese Air Force aircraft operating within the territory controlled by them in the Tibet region.
  • The two sides have been able to resolve three friction points in eastern Ladakh and are holding discussions to find solutions for the Hot Springs area also.
    • The two have conducted 16 rounds of Corps commander-level talks to de-escalate the situation and tensions which began after the Chinese tried to alter the status quo on the LAC in 2020.

What is Line of Actual Control?

  • About: The Line of Actual Control (LAC) is the demarcation that separates Indian-controlled territory from Chinese-controlled territory.
  • LAC is different from the Line of Control (LoC) with Pakistan:
    • The LoC was designated so in 1972, following the Shimla Agreement between the two countries. It is delineated on a map.
    • The LAC, in contrast, is only a concept – it is not agreed upon by the two countries, neither delineated on a map or demarcated on the ground.
  • Length of the LAC: India considers the LAC to be 3,488 km long, while the Chinese consider it to be only around 2,000 km.
  • Sectors Across the LAC:
    • It is divided into three sectors: the eastern sector which spans Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim (1346 km), the middle sector in Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh (545 km), and the western sector in Ladakh (1597 km).
    • The alignment of the LAC in the eastern sector is along the 1914 McMahon Line.
    • The McMohan line marked out previously unclaimed/undefined borders between Britain and Tibet.
    • The middle sector is the least disputed sector, while the western sector witnesses the highest transgressions between the two sides.

What are the Agreements Between India-China on Air Space?

  • As per the existing agreements between India and China, operation of fighter aircraft and armed helicopters is restricted to a distance from the LAC.
  • According to the ‘Agreement on Maintenance of Peace and Tranquillity along the LAC in India-China Border Area’ of 1996, “combat aircraft (to include fighter, bomber, reconnaissance, military trainer, armed helicopter and other armed aircraft) shall not fly within 10 km of the LAC.
  • Between 1993 and 2012, a set of Confidence Building Measures (CBMs) were agreed upon by India and China to maintain peace between the two countries.

What is the Confidence Building Measures (CMB)?

  • In a face-off situation neither side shall use force or threaten to use force against the other,
  • Both sides shall treat each other with courtesy and refrain from any provocative actions,
  • If the border personnel of the two sides come to a face-to-face situation due to differences on the alignment of the LAC, they shall exercise self-restraint and take all necessary steps to avoid an escalation of the situation.
  • No military aircraft of either side shall fly across the LAC, except by prior permission.
  • Neither side shall open fire, cause biodegradation, use hazardous chemicals, conduct blast operations or hunt with guns or explosives within two kilometres from the LAC

What was the Response after this Incident?

  • The Indian side has strongly raised objections over the same.
  • More recently, India and China have discussed the "proposal for direct contact" between two air forces during the special military talks.
  • The direct contact mechanism could be through a separate hotline or by using the existing hotline between the two armies.
  • The Indian and Chinese armies currently have six hotlines - two each in eastern Ladakh, Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim - between their ground commanders.
    • The sixth one was set up between Kongra La in north Sikkim and Khamba Dzong in the Tibetan Autonomous Region in August 2021.

What do We know about Air Space and Related Laws?

About:

  • Air space, in international law, is the space above a particular national territory, treated as belonging to the government controlling the territory.
  • It does not include outer space, which, under the Outer Space Treaty of 1967 is declared to be free and not subject to national appropriation.
  • The treaty, however, did not define the altitude at which outer space begins and air space ends.

Air Sovereignty:

  • It is the fundamental right of a sovereign state to regulate the use of its air space and enforce its own aviation law.
  • State controls the entry of foreign aircraft into its territory and that persons within its territory are subject to its laws.
  • The principle of air space sovereignty is established through the Paris Convention on the Regulation of Aerial Navigation (1919) and subsequently by other multilateral treaties.
  • Under the 1944 Chicago Convention, contracting states agree to permit aircraft registered in the other contracting states and engaged in commercial non-scheduled flights to fly into their territory without prior diplomatic permission and, moreover, to pick up and discharge passengers, cargo, and mail.
    • This provisions, in practice, has become a dead letter.

Prohibited Air Space:

  • It refers to an area of air space within which flight of aircraft is not allowed, usually due to security concerns. It is one of many types of special use airspace designations and is depicted on aeronautical charts with the letter "P" followed by a serial number.

Restricted Air Space:

  • Different from prohibited air space, in this space, the entry is typically forbidden for all aircrafts and is not subjected to clearance from ATC (Air Traffic Control) or the air space's controlling body.

New START Treaty

Context:  Recently, Russia suspended United Stated of America’s on-site inspections under New START Treaty with Washington due to Western sanctions and coronavirus infections.

Weekly Current Affairs (8th to 14th August 2022) - 2 | Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly - UPSC

What is New START Treaty?

  • New START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) was the last remaining arms reduction pact between the former Cold War rivals and caps to 1,550 the number of nuclear warheads that can be deployed by Russia and United States of America.
  • It entered into force on 5th February, 2011.
  • It continues the bipartisan process of verifiably reducing U.S. and Russian strategic nuclear arsenals by limiting both sides to 700 strategic launchers and 1,550 operational warheads.
  • Its duration was for ten years that is till 2021, but it was extended by five more years till 2026.

What are the various Treaties signed Between USA & Russia?

  • Strategic Arms Limitation Talks-1(SALT):
    • It began in 1969, Under the Interim Agreement, both sides pledged not to construct new Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) silos, not to increase the size of existing ICBM silos significantly, and capped the number of Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile (SLBM) launch tubes and SLBM-carrying submarines.
  • Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty-1 (START):
    • Signed in 1991, the agreement required the destruction of excess delivery vehicles which was verified using an intrusive verification regime that involved on-site inspections, the regular exchange of information (including telemetry), and the use of national technical means (i.e., satellites).
  • Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty-2:
    • Signed in 1993, called for reducing deployed strategic arsenals to 3,000-3,500 warheads and banned the deployment of destabilizing multiple-warhead land-based missiles.
  • Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (SORT):
    • Signed in 2004, under which the United States and Russia reduced their strategic arsenals to 1,700-2,200 warheads each.
  • Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START):
  • Signed in 2010, a legally binding, verifiable agreement that limits each side to 1,550 strategic nuclear warheads deployed on 700 strategic delivery systems (ICBMs, SLBMs, and heavy bombers) and limits deployed and nondeployed launchers to 800.

Why Russia Suspended the Inspection?

  • It is difficult for Russia to carry out inspections on American soil due to Western sanctions including the closure of air space for Russian planes and visa restrictions.
  • It also pointed to a new spike in coronavirus cases in the United States.

Booster Dose: Corbevax

Context: Recently, the government of India announced that those who have received Covishield or Covaxin as their first or second dose for Covid-19 can take Corbevax as the third booster shot.

  • Corbevax is still awaiting World Health Organisation’s Emergency Use Listing (EUL).
  • Until now, the third dose had to be the same vaccine that was used for the first and second doses.
  • The decision comes after India’s drug regulator approved Corbevax as a heterologous Covid booster dose for individuals aged 18 years.

Weekly Current Affairs (8th to 14th August 2022) - 2 | Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly - UPSC

What is WHO’s Emergency Use Listing (EUL)?

  • EUL is a risk-based procedure for assessing and listing unlicensed vaccines, therapeutics and in-vitro diagnostics with the ultimate aim of expediting the availability of products to people affected by a public health emergency.
  • International travel in many countries requires people to get a vaccine that’s on the WHO’s approved list.

What do we know about the Corbevax Vaccine?

About:

  • Corbevax is India’s first indigenously developed Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) protein sub-unit vaccine against Covid, with two doses scheduled 28 days apart.
  • It can be stored at 2-8 degrees Celsius, which is best suited for India’s requirements.

Working Process:

  • Corbevax is a “recombinant protein sub-unit” vaccine, which means it is made up of a specific part of SARS-CoV-2: the spike protein on the virus’s surface.
  • The spike protein allows the virus to enter the cells in the body so that it can replicate and cause disease.
  • However, when this protein alone is given to the body, it is not expected to be harmful as the rest of the virus is absent.
  • The body is expected to develop an immune response against the injected spike protein.
    • Once the human immune system recognises the protein, it produces antibodies as white blood cells to fight the infection.
  • Therefore, when the real virus attempts to infect the body, it will already have an immune response ready that will make it unlikely for the person to fall severely ill.

What are other types of Vaccines?

  • Inactivated vaccines:
    • Inactivated vaccines use the killed version of the germ that causes a disease.
    • Vaccines of this type are created by inactivating a pathogen, typically using heat or chemicals such as formaldehyde or formalin.
    • This destroys the pathogen’s ability to replicate, but keeps it “intact” so that the immune system can still recognize it. (“Inactivated” is generally used rather than “killed” to refer to viral vaccines of this type, as viruses are generally not considered to be alive.)
  • Live-attenuated Vaccines:
    • Live vaccines use a weakened (or attenuated) form of the germ that causes a disease.
    • Because these vaccines are so similar to the natural infection that they help prevent, they create a strong and long-lasting immune response.
  • Messenger (m) RNA Vaccines:
    • mRNA vaccines make proteins in order to trigger an immune response. mRNA vaccines have several benefits compared to other types of vaccines, including shorter manufacturing times, because they do not contain a live virus, no risk of causing disease in the person getting vaccinated.
    • The vaccines are used to protect against: Covid-19.
  • Toxoid Vaccines:
    • They use a toxin (harmful product) made by the germ that causes a disease.
    • They create immunity to the parts of the germ that cause a disease instead of the germ itself. That means the immune response is targeted to the toxin instead of the whole germ.
  • Viral Vector Vaccines:
    • Viral vector vaccines use a modified version of a different virus as a vector to deliver protection.
    • Several different viruses have been used as vectors, including influenza, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), measles virus, and adenovirus, which causes the common cold.

UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan

Context: Recently, U.N. Secretary General has appointed Rear Admiral Guillermo Pablo Rios of Argentina as the Head of Mission and Chief Military Observer for the United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP).

Weekly Current Affairs (8th to 14th August 2022) - 2 | Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly - UPSC

What is UNMOGIP?

  • It was established in January 1949.
  • After the first war in Kashmir (1947-1948), India approached the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) to bring the conflict in Kashmir to the notice of Security Council members.
  • In January 1948, the UNSC adopted Resolution 39, establishing the three-member United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan (UNCIP) to investigate and mediate the dispute.
  • In April 1948, by its Resolution 47, the UNCIP was reconstituted as UNMOGIP.

What is the Function of UNMOGIP?

  • The Karachi Agreement of July 1949 firmed up the role of UN-level military observers and permitted supervision of the Ceasefire Line established in Jammu and Kashmir.
    • After the 1st Indo-Pak armed conflict in 1948 under the supervision of the UNCIP, military representatives of both Pakistan and India met in Karachi and signed the Karachi Agreement on 27th July 1949.
    • It established a Cease-Fire Line (CFL) in Kashmir.
  • UNMOGIP has six field stations in Pakistan-administered Kashmir (PAK) and four field stations in Indian-administered Kashmir (IAK) to monitor ceasefire.
  • Following renewed hostilities of 1971, UNMOGIP has remained in the area to observe developments pertaining to the strict observance of the ceasefire of 17 December 1971 and report thereon to the UN Secretary-General.

Why does the UNMOGIP seem Contentious for India?

  • India officially maintains that the UNMOGIP’s role was “overtaken” by the Simla Agreement of 1972 that established the Line of Control (LoC).
    • In the Shimla Agreement, India and Pakistan agreed to move the ceasefire line to the Line of Control and to resolve their disputes bilaterally, without the intervention of a third party.
    • Kashmir and the Pakistan-sponsored terrorism within now is largely an internal matter of India.
  • Since 1972 India has not gone to UNMOGIP with complaints against Pakistan.
  • In 2014, India requested that UNMOGIP cease operations in Kashmir, and the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) reiterated in 2017 that UNMOGIP has no mandate to monitor the situation in Kashmir.
  • Pakistan, on the other hand, does not accept the Indian argument and continues to seek cooperation from the UNMOGIP.
  • As a result of these divergent policies, Pakistan continues to lodge complaints with the UNMOGIP against alleged Indian ceasefire violations.

What is United Nations Security Council Resolution 47?

About:

  • It is concerned with the resolution of the Kashmir conflict.
  • According to it, Pakistan was to withdraw its nationals who had entered the State for the purpose of fighting and to prevent future intrusions.
  • The five member UNMOGIP reconstituted through this resolution urged India and Pakistan to hold a plebiscite after the restoration of law and order.
  • The UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) was meant to supervise the Cease Fire Line (CFL) established in Jammu and Kashmir in July 1949 under the Karachi Agreement.
  • UNMOGIP is funded through the UN's regular budget.

India’s stand on Resolution 47:

  • India rejected the UNSC Resolution 47 and maintained that the resolution ignored the military invasion by Pakistan and placed both nations on an equal diplomatic ground as a dismissal of Pakistan’s aggression.
  • The Instrument of Accession (IoA) signed by the Maharaja of Kashmir was ignored in the resolution.

Pakistan’s stand on Resolution 47:

  • It objected to even the minimum presence of Indian forces in Kashmir, as mandated by the resolution.
  • It wanted equal representation in the state government for the dominant party in Pakistani-held Kashmir i.e the Muslim Conference.

National Intellectual Property Awareness Mission (NIPAM)

Context:  National Intellectual Property Awareness Mission (NIPAM), launched in 2021, has achieved the target of imparting Intellectual Property (IP) awareness and basic training to 1 million students.

  • The target has been achieved ahead of the deadline which was 15 August 2022.

What is the National Intellectual Property Awareness Mission (NIPAM)?

About:

  • The pan-India mission aims to provide awareness on intellectual property and its rights to 1 million students.
  • It aims to inculcate the spirit of creativity and innovation to students of higher education (classes 8 to 12) and ignite and inspire the students of college/Universities to innovate and protect their creations.

Implementing Agency:

  • The program is being implemented by the Intellectual Property Office, the Office of Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trade Marks (CGPDTM), Ministry of Commerce and Industry.

Target Achieved:

  • During the period 08 December 2021 to 31st July 2022, the following milestones were achieved:
  • No. of participants (students/faculty) trained on IP: 10,05,272
  • Educational institutes covered: 3,662
  • Geographical coverage: 28 states and 7 Union Territories

What are Intellectual Property Rights?

About:

  • Intellectual property rights (IPR) are the rights given to persons over the creation of their minds:
    • Inventions, literary and artistic works, and symbols, names and images used in commerce.
    • They usually give the creator an exclusive right over the use of his/her creation for a certain period of time.
  • These rights are outlined in Article 27 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which provides for the right to benefit from the protection of moral and material interests resulting from authorship of scientific, literary or artistic productions.
  • The importance of intellectual property was first recognized in the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property (1883) and the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (1886).
    • Both treaties are administered by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).

Types of IPR:

  • Copyrights: The rights of authors of literary and artistic works (such as books and other writings, musical compositions, paintings, sculpture, computer programs and films) are protected by copyright, for a minimum period of 50 years after the death of the author.
  • Industrial property: Protection of distinctive signs, in particular trademarks and geographical indications:
    • Trademarks
    • Geographical Indications (GIs)
  • Industrial designs and trade secrets: Other types of industrial property are protected primarily to stimulate innovation, design and the creation of technology.

Need for IPR:

  • Encourages innovation: The legal protection of new creations encourages the commitment of additional resources for further innovation.
  • Economic growth: The promotion and protection of intellectual property spurs economic growth, creates new jobs and industries, and enhances the quality and enjoyment of life.
  • Safeguard the rights of creators: IPR is required to safeguard creators and other producers of their intellectual commodity, goods and services by granting them certain time-limited rights to control the use made of the manufactured goods.
  • Ease of Doing Business: It promotes innovation and creativity and ensures ease of doing business.
  • Transfer of Technology: It facilitates the transfer of technology in the form of foreign direct investment, joint ventures and licensing.

What are the Treaties and Conventions related to IPR?

Global:

  • India is a member of the World Trade Organisation and committed to the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS Agreement).
  • India is also a member of World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), a body responsible for the promotion of the protection of intellectual property rights throughout the world.
  • India is also a member of the following important WIPO-administered International Treaties and Conventions relating to IPRs:
    • Budapest Treaty on the International Recognition of the Deposit of Microorganisms for the Purposes of Patent Procedure
    • Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property
    • Convention Establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization
    • Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works
    • Patent Cooperation Treaty

National:

  • Indian Patent Act 1970: This principal law for patenting system in India came into force in the year 1972. It replaced the Indian Patents and Designs Act 1911. The Act was amended by the Patents (Amendment) Act, 2005, wherein product patent was extended to all fields of technology including food, drugs, chemicals and microorganisms.
  • National Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) Policy 2016: The National Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) Policy 2016 was adopted in May 2016 as a vision document to guide future development of IPRs in the country. 
    • Its clarion call is “Creative India; Innovative India”.
    • It sets in place an institutional mechanism for implementation, monitoring and review.
    • It aims to incorporate and adapt global best practices to the Indian scenario.

Atal Pension Yojana

Context: Recently, a gazette notification issued by the Ministry of Finance stated that Income tax payers will soon be disallowed to be a part of the Atal Pension Yojana (APY). 

About the recent decision

  • Eligibility: Any citizen, who is or has been an income-tax payer, shall not be eligible to join APY.
    • the rule will come into effect on October 1, 2022.
    • However, they will receive the money accumulated in their respective accounts. 
  • Income tax-payer is a person who is liable to pay income-tax in accordance with the Income Tax Act, 1961, as amended from time to time.

Atal Pension Yojana (APY)

  • Launched: It was launched in 2015. 
  • Aim: To provide social security for the people working in an unorganised sector as people working in such sectors mainly belong to a low-income group. 
  • Eligibility:  Any Indian citizen in the age group of 18-40 years having savings bank account/ post office savings bank account.
    • The co-contribution of the Government of India is available for 5 years &  for those who are not covered by any Statutory Social Security Scheme and are not income tax payers.
  • Administrated By: Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA).
  • Coverage: The Scheme has been implemented comprehensively across the country covering all states and Union Territories. 
    • Atal Pension Yojana (APY) is open to all bank account holders who are not members of any statutory social security scheme. 
  • Guaranteed pension: Under this social security scheme, a subscriber receives a minimum guaranteed pension of 1000 to 5000 per month from the age of 60 years, depending upon his contribution. 
    • The same pension would be paid to the spouse of the subscriber after the demise of subscriber and on demise of both the subscriber and spouse, the pension wealth as accumulated till age 60 of the subscriber would be returned back to the nominee.  

Benefits of APY

  • Old age people: APY will help benefit the people of old age.
  • Source of income: The scheme will help in providing income to the people who have very little sources of income. 
  • Fixed pension: the contribution levels would vary and would be low if subscriber joins early and increase if he joins late.
  • Eligible for tax benefits: Contributions to the Atal Pension Yojana (APY) are eligible for tax benefits similar to the National Pension System (NPS).

Garuda Shield

Context: The United States, Indonesia and other countries are conducting joint combat exercises on the Indonesian island of Sumatra.

About

  • Garuda Shield has been an annual military training since 2009.
  • Participation of several other countries, including Australia and Japan, makes the 2022 edition the largest ever.
  • The exercises encompass army, navy, air force and marine drills.
  • It is designed to strengthen capability, interoperability, trust and cooperation in support of a free and open Indo-Pacific.
The document Weekly Current Affairs (8th to 14th August 2022) - 2 | Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly - UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly.
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FAQs on Weekly Current Affairs (8th to 14th August 2022) - 2 - Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly - UPSC

1. What are airspace violations near LAC?
Ans. Airspace violations near LAC refer to incidents where aircraft from one country enter the airspace of another country without permission or without following the established protocols. In the context of the Line of Actual Control (LAC) between India and China, airspace violations often occur due to the disputed nature of the border and differing perceptions of the LAC. These violations can lead to tensions and escalations between the two countries.
2. What is the New START Treaty?
Ans. The New START Treaty is a nuclear arms reduction treaty between the United States and Russia. It was signed in 2010 and came into force in 2011. The treaty limits the number of deployed strategic nuclear weapons for each country and establishes a verification regime to ensure compliance. It replaced the previous START Treaty that expired in 2009. The New START Treaty aims to enhance strategic stability and reduce the risk of nuclear conflict between the two countries.
3. What is a booster dose of Corbevax?
Ans. A booster dose of Corbevax refers to an additional dose of the Corbevax COVID-19 vaccine that is administered after the initial vaccination series. Corbevax is a protein subunit vaccine developed by the Indian pharmaceutical company Biological E Limited. The booster dose is given to individuals who have already completed their primary vaccination schedule to enhance their immune response and provide longer-lasting protection against COVID-19. The timing and necessity of booster doses may vary based on scientific evidence and public health recommendations.
4. What is the UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan?
Ans. The UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) is a peacekeeping mission established by the United Nations in 1949. Its mandate is to observe and report on the ceasefire line between India and Pakistan in the disputed region of Jammu and Kashmir. UNMOGIP monitors the situation, investigates ceasefire violations, and facilitates communication between the two countries to maintain peace and stability in the region. However, it does not have a direct role in resolving the Kashmir conflict.
5. What is the National Intellectual Property Awareness Mission (NIPAM)?
Ans. The National Intellectual Property Awareness Mission (NIPAM) is an initiative launched by the Government of India to create awareness about intellectual property rights (IPRs) and promote their protection in the country. NIPAM aims to educate various stakeholders, including inventors, creators, entrepreneurs, and the general public, about the importance of IPRs in fostering innovation, economic growth, and competitiveness. It provides training programs, capacity building initiatives, and outreach activities to enhance understanding and utilization of IPRs in India.
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