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Muscles & Types of Muscles | Science Class 5 PDF Download

Muscles

Our bones cannot move on their own. They need the help from the muscles and joints to move. Muscles are fleshy bundles of thin elastic-like material in the body connected to the bones by tendons. 

Muscles & Types of Muscles | Science Class 5

  • Muscles also help us to grow and remain strong. 
  • They work in much important metabolic activities such as digestion, respiration, excretion, etc. 
  • Our body has more than 650 muscles, which is approximately half of a person’s body weight.
    Muscles & Types of Muscles | Science Class 5
  • Muscles act in one direction only, i.e, they can only pull bones but cannot push. 
  • Two muscles are required to move a bone. 
  • For example, when we raise our arm, the biceps muscles contract and pull up the forearm, but when we lower the forearm, the triceps muscles contract.
    Muscles & Types of Muscles | Science Class 5

Types of Muscles

Muscles & Types of Muscles | Science Class 5

According to their structure and functions, muscles can be classified into three different kinds: 

1. Voluntary or skeletal muscles 

2. Involuntary or smooth muscles 

3. Cardiac muscles

Let's discuss them in detail: 

1. Voluntary or skeletal muscles

Muscles & Types of Muscles | Science Class 5

  • The muscles which are under our control are called voluntary muscles. 
  • These muscles bring about the movements of the skeleton. 
  • The voluntary muscles contract quickly and powerfully
  • These muscles are found in arms, legs, eyes, tongue etc. 
  • We run, walk, bend and stretch with the help of these muscles.  

2. Involuntary or smooth muscles 

Muscles & Types of Muscles | Science Class 5

  • The muscles which are not under our control are called involuntary muscles or smooth muscles. 
  • These muscles control the movement in our alimentary canal (digestive tract), the flow of blood in the blood vessels and the movement of ribs during breathing. 

3. Cardiac muscles 

Muscles & Types of Muscles | Science Class 5

  • The muscles of the heart are different from the other two types. 
  • These are involuntary in nature but are structurally like voluntary muscles. 
  • Cardiac muscles are present only in the heart. 
  • As the muscles are involuntary, they are not in our control and continue working on their own throughout our life without stopping or getting tired. 

Working of Muscles

Muscles & Types of Muscles | Science Class 5

  • Muscles work in pairs by shortening or contracting. 
  • When muscles contract, they become short and the bones come closer to each other. 
  • When our knee bends during walking or running, two muscles work simultaneously. 
  • One muscle contracts and becomes shorter whereas the other one relaxes. 
  • When the leg is stretched, the reverse process occurs. 
  • Each movable joint has two sets of muscles, one to pull the bones up and the other to pull the bones back. 

Development of Muscles

To have a healthy and well formed body, the muscles must be strong. To have strong muscles: 

1. We should exercise regularly. 

2. We must play games. 

3. We must take proper rest. 

4. We must have good eating habits. 

We should not adopt any bad habits like smoking, chewing tobacco, drinking alcohol or taking any kind of harmful drugs. These bad habits damage our body muscles. Thus, regular exercise and games, proper rest and good eating habits keep our body healthy and strong. 

Function of Muscles

  • Muscles play an important role in our body. 
  • They Produce movement: Our body moves due to muscle contraction. 
  • Maintain posture: Voluntary or skeletal muscles help in maintaining our body posture. 
  • Stabilize joints: Muscles prevents our joints from damage by holding them while moving. 
  • Generate heat: Muscles also generate heat in the body. It is a by-product of muscular activities.  
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FAQs on Muscles & Types of Muscles - Science Class 5

1. What are the three types of muscles in our body?
Ans. The three types of muscles in our body are skeletal muscles, smooth muscles, and cardiac muscles.
2. How do skeletal muscles work?
Ans. Skeletal muscles work by contracting and relaxing to enable movement. They are attached to bones by tendons and are under voluntary control.
3. How do smooth muscles differ from skeletal muscles?
Ans. Smooth muscles are found in the walls of organs, blood vessels, and the digestive system. Unlike skeletal muscles, they are not under voluntary control and work involuntarily to control organ functions.
4. What is the role of cardiac muscles in our body?
Ans. Cardiac muscles are found in the walls of the heart and are responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. They work involuntarily and have a unique structure that allows them to contract rhythmically.
5. How do muscles develop and grow?
Ans. Muscles develop and grow through a process called hypertrophy. This occurs when muscles are regularly subjected to resistance exercises, causing microscopic damage to muscle fibers. The body repairs and rebuilds these fibers, resulting in increased muscle size and strength.
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